Conditioning, Operant

Publication Title: 
Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide a review of the rationale and evidence supporting three frequently used psychosocial interventions for chronic pain: cognitive-behavioral therapy, operant behavioral therapy and self-hypnosis training. We also review recent work in these areas, with an emphasis on the 2006 publishing year. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent clinical trials and laboratory work continue to support the use of cognitive-behavioral therapy and operant behavioral therapy as adjunctive treatments for chronic pain.

Author(s): 
Molton, Ivan R.
Graham, Christina
Stoelb, Brenda L.
Jensen, Mark P.
Publication Title: 
Behavioural Pharmacology

Drug addiction is a progressive, relapsing disease comprised of interlocking stages of disordered motivation. Numerous animal models describing various stages of the addiction process have been developed over the past few decades, providing considerable advantages for the modeling of drug addiction compared with other complex psychiatric disease states. Escalation of drug self-administration has emerged as a widely accepted operant conditioning model of excessive drug intake.

Author(s): 
Edwards, Scott
Koob, George F.
Publication Title: 
Nature Neuroscience

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has a crucial role in modulating neural and behavioral plasticity to drugs of abuse. We found a persistent downregulation of exon-specific Bdnf expression in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) in response to chronic opiate exposure, which was mediated by specific epigenetic modifications at the corresponding Bdnf gene promoters.

Author(s): 
Koo, Ja Wook
Mazei-Robison, Michelle S.
LaPlant, Quincey
Egervari, Gabor
Braunscheidel, Kevin M.
Adank, Danielle N.
Ferguson, Deveroux
Feng, Jian
Sun, HaoSheng
Scobie, Kimberly N.
Damez-Werno, Diane M.
Ribeiro, Efrain
PeÒa, Catherine Jensen
Walker, Deena
Bagot, Rosemary C.
Cahill, Michael E.
Anderson, Sarah Ann R.
LabontÈ, Benoit
Hodes, Georgia E.
Browne, Heidi
Chadwick, Benjamin
Robison, Alfred J.
Vialou, Vincent F.
Dias, Caroline
Lorsch, Zachary
Mouzon, Ezekiell
Lobo, Mary Kay
Dietz, David M.
Russo, Scott J.
Neve, Rachael L.
Hurd, Yasmin L.
Nestler, Eric J.
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Neuroscience: The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience

Epigenetic processes that regulate histone acetylation play an essential role in behavioral and molecular responses to cocaine. To date, however, only a small fraction of the mechanisms involved in the addiction-associated acetylome have been investigated. Members of the bromodomain and extraterminal (BET) family of epigenetic "reader" proteins (BRD2, BRD3, BRD4, and BRDT) bind acetylated histones and serve as a scaffold for the recruitment of macromolecular complexes to modify chromatin accessibility and transcriptional activity.

Author(s): 
Sartor, Gregory C.
Powell, Samuel K.
Brothers, Shaun P.
Wahlestedt, Claes
Publication Title: 
Artificial Life

The prisoner's dilemma (PD) is the leading metaphor for the evolution of cooperative behavior in populations of selfish agents. Although cooperation in the iterated prisoner's dilemma (IPD) has been studied for over twenty years, most of this research has been focused on strategies that involve nonlearned behavior. Another approach is to suppose that players' selection of the preferred reply might be enforced in the same way as feeding animals track the best way to feed in changing nonstationary environments.

Author(s): 
Gutnisky, D. A.
Zanutto, B. S.
Publication Title: 
British Journal of Psychology (London, England: 1953)

Human infants as young as 14 to 18 months of age help others attain their goals, for example, by helping them to fetch out-of-reach objects or opening cabinets for them. They do this irrespective of any reward from adults (indeed external rewards undermine the tendency), and very likely with no concern for such things as reciprocation and reputation, which serve to maintain altruism in older children and adults. Humans' nearest primate relatives, chimpanzees, also help others instrumentally without concrete rewards.

Author(s): 
Warneken, Felix
Tomasello, Michael
Publication Title: 
British Journal of Psychology (London, England: 1953)

The authors' rigorous and ingenious programme of work documents young humans' capacity for prosocial action (Warneken & Tomasello, 2009). Their laboratory findings are corroborated by centuries of observational data, spanning cultures, and historical epochs. Two general questions are raised. Firstly, what are the rules of evidence needed in using comparative data to make claims about the evolution of human social behaviours?

Author(s): 
Hay, Dale F.
Publication Title: 
The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association
Author(s): 
Rothman, I.
Publication Title: 
The American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis
Author(s): 
Spanos, N. P.
de Moor, W.
Barber, T. X.
Publication Title: 
Science (New York, N.Y.)

The objective precision of operant conditioning methodology validates the power of hypnosis to induce alterations in time perception. Personal tempo was systematically modified by instructions to trained hypnotic subjects, with significant behavioral effects observed on a variety of response rate measures.

Author(s): 
Zimbardo, P. G.
Marshall, G.
White, G.
Maslach, C.

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