Confounding Factors (Epidemiology)

Publication Title: 
Critical Care Medicine

OBJECTIVE: Because the results of a meta-analysis are used to formulate the highest level recommendation in clinical practice guidelines, clinicians should be mindful of problems inherent in this technique. Rather than reviewing meta-analysis in abstract, general terms, we believe readers can gain a more concrete understanding of the problems through a detailed examination of one meta-analysis.

Author(s): 
Tobin, Martin J.
Jubran, Amal
Publication Title: 
Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine (New York, N.Y.)

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Individualized homeopathy is the most controversial form of this therapy. This review aims to summarize the actual state of clinical efficacy research on individualized homeopathy. METHODS: Electronic databases as well as other sources were searched for possibly relevant studies. Randomized or quasirandomized controlled clinical trials comparing an individualized homeopathic treatment strategy with placebo, no treatment, or another treatment were eligible.

Author(s): 
Linde, K.
Melchart, D.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine (New York, N.Y.)

Criteria for therapeutic efficacy and safety include significant amelioration of symptoms and, ideally, cure (i.e., patients' belief in effective improvement of symptoms and quality of life, durable impact on symptoms, verifiable subjective and objective changes); improved patient management (e.g., diminishing, or ceasing medication, physiotherapy, and other interventions); safety for patient and practitioner and an acceptable side effect profile; cost-effectiveness of the therapy in practice and to teach to others.

Author(s): 
Jobst, K. A.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Advanced Nursing

The current popularity of complementary therapies presents an interesting challenge to nurses and midwives. If they are to deliver such therapies themselves, or support patients in choosing appropriate therapies they will need to consider the professional and legal issues, in particular those regarding safety. Evidence for the effectiveness for complementary therapies is also a requirement in order that their integration into nursing practice can be justified.

Author(s): 
Richardson, J.
Publication Title: 
The American Journal of Medicine

BACKGROUND: Acupuncture, hypnotherapy, and aversive smoking are the most frequently studied alternative smoking cessation aids. These aids are often used as alternatives to pharmacotherapies for smoking cessation; however, their efficacy is unclear. METHODS: We carried out a random effect meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials to determine the efficacy of alternative smoking cessation aids. We systematically searched the Cochrane Library, EMBASE, Medline, and PsycINFO databases through December 2010.

Author(s): 
Tahiri, Mehdi
Mottillo, Salvatore
Joseph, Lawrence
Pilote, Louise
Eisenberg, Mark J.
Publication Title: 
Nature
Author(s): 
Anthes, Emily
Publication Title: 
American Journal of Public Health

OBJECTIVES: Vitamin and mineral supplementation is a common practice in the United States, yet little is known about the long-term health effects of regular supplement use. METHODS: To examine the relationship between reported use of supplements and mortality, we analyzed data from US adults 25 to 74 years of age who were examined in the First National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1971 to 1975), with vital status determined through 1987. RESULTS: At baseline, 22.5% of the cohort reported using supplements regularly and 10.0% reported irregular use.

Author(s): 
Kim, I.
Williamson, D. F.
Byers, T.
Koplan, J. P.
Publication Title: 
Nihon Ronen Igakkai Zasshi. Japanese Journal of Geriatrics

To explore factors associated with longevity, we studied geographic distribution of centenarians in Japan, based on 1990 the population census. We calculated the proportion of centenarians from ratio of number of centenarian to that of population aged 65 years or older. Centenarians in Japan consisted of number 4,152 persons. By prefecture, Tokyo had the most centenarians (383), followed by Okinawa (193) and Fukuoka (151) prefectures. Fukui had the least (24), followed by Akita (26) and Ishikawa (29) prefectures.

Author(s): 
Okamoto, K.
Sasaki, R.
Publication Title: 
Toxicology

Cigarette smoke is a significant source of oxidative stress, one potential mechanism for its untoward health effects. The antioxidant defense system is partly comprised of antioxidant micronutrients, making it important to understand the relationship between cigarette smoking and circulating concentrations of antioxidant micronutrients. A synthesis of the literature shows that compared with nonsmokers, on average, active smokers have greater than 25% lower circulating concentrations of ascorbic acid, alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, and cryptoxanthin.

Author(s): 
Alberg, Anthony
Publication Title: 
Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity

Short-term studies indicate that intentional weight loss (IWL) among obese persons significantly improves health variables that are often precursors or markers of chronic diseases (e.g. heart diseases, type-2 diabetes). Hence, it is logical to assume that IWL among obese persons would lead to increased longevity.

Author(s): 
Yang, D.
Fontaine, K. R.
Wang, C.
Allison, D. B.

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