Continental Population Groups

Publication Title: 
American Journal of Public Health

OBJECTIVES: Vitamin and mineral supplementation is a common practice in the United States, yet little is known about the long-term health effects of regular supplement use. METHODS: To examine the relationship between reported use of supplements and mortality, we analyzed data from US adults 25 to 74 years of age who were examined in the First National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1971 to 1975), with vital status determined through 1987. RESULTS: At baseline, 22.5% of the cohort reported using supplements regularly and 10.0% reported irregular use.

Author(s): 
Kim, I.
Williamson, D. F.
Byers, T.
Koplan, J. P.
Publication Title: 
Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology

Apolipoprotein E polymorphisms are important determinants of blood lipid levels and have been associated with longevity and atherosclerosis. However, information is limited on the effects of apo E variation on the lipids of nonwhite and elderly individuals. We tested the hypothesis that apo E polymorphisms are associated with plasma lipid levels in an elderly, multiethnic population. Cross-sectional data from 1068 noninstitutionalized individuals from northern Manhattan over the age of 64 who were not on a lipid-lowering diet or drug were analyzed.

Author(s): 
Pablos-MÈndez, A.
Mayeux, R.
Ngai, C.
Shea, S.
Berglund, L.
Publication Title: 
Psychosomatic Medicine

OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to assess whether socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with dysregulation of the cortisol diurnal rhythm and whether this association is independent of race and occurs equally in whites and blacks; and to determine if an association between SES and cortisol can be explained (is mediated) by behavioral, social, and emotional differences across the SES gradient.

Author(s): 
Cohen, Sheldon
Schwartz, Joseph E.
Epel, Elissa
Kirschbaum, Clemens
Sidney, Steve
Seeman, Teresa
Publication Title: 
The International Journal of Eating Disorders

OBJECTIVE: To assess body shape ideals across gender, sexual orientation, race, socio-economic status, and age, METHOD: An analysis of personal advertisements was conducted across seven different publications which targeted the groups of interest. RESULTS: Women advertised body weight much less often than men, and lesbians reported body shape descriptors significantly less often than heterosexual women. Gay men and African-American men described their body shape significantly more often than did other groups.

Author(s): 
Epel, E. S.
Spanakos, A.
Kasl-Godley, J.
Brownell, K. D.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology: The Official Journal for the Society of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, American Psychological Association, Division 53

Reviews salient emerging themes in the scientific literature related to identifying etiology and pathophysiology of ADHD. While bypassing the need for new treatment research, the review highlights three themes. First, recognition of the epigenetic effects is expected to revitalize the search for and mapping of early environmental influences on the development of ADHD.

Author(s): 
Nigg, Joel T.
Publication Title: 
International Journal of Aging & Human Development

Because of the dearth of available partners, older women looking to date may have to relax their dating standards to find a dating partner, perhaps accepting a life situation that is not what they had hoped for. However older women may be reluctant to sacrifice an often recently-gained lifestyle free of caregiving obligations. Older men, on the other hand, have a large pool of potential dating partners and do not face the same dilemma.

Author(s): 
William, D. McIntosh
Locker, Lawrence
Briley, Katherine
Ryan, Rebecca
Scott, Alison J.
Publication Title: 
Inquiry: A Journal of Medical Care Organization, Provision and Financing

Controlling for state fixed effects and other factors, this paper estimates the effect of the generosity of Medicaid physician payment levels on the volume and site of ambulatory care received by Medicaid patients compared to privately insured patients. Results indicate that cuts in Medicaid physician fees lead to statistically significant reductions in the number of visits for Medicaid patients compared to privately insured patients.

Author(s): 
Decker, Sandra L.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes (1999)

OBJECTIVE: To assess recent developments in the HIV epidemic in injecting drug users (IDUs) in New York City. With >50,000 cases of AIDS in IDUs, New York has experienced the largest HIV/AIDS epidemic in IDUs of any city in the world. METHODS: Serial cross-sectional surveys conducted continuously from 1990 to 2001 of IDUs entering the Beth Israel Medical Center (BIMC) drug detoxification program in New York City. HIV serostatus, use of prevention services, and risk behaviors were measured.

Author(s): 
Des Jarlais, Don C.
Perlis, Theresa
Arasteh, Kamyar
Hagan, Holly
Milliken, Judith
Braine, Naomi
Yancovitz, Stanley
Mildvan, Donna
Perlman, David C.
Maslow, Carey
Friedman, Samuel R.
Publication Title: 
Contemporary Clinical Trials

One of the most influential factors in science and medicine has been the development of placebo-controlled clinical trials. However, recruitment of patients for clinical trials is sometimes a major problem in clinical research. Successful patient recruitment may be enhanced with a clear understanding of the motivating factors that determine a patient's decision to enter a study.

Author(s): 
Rojavin, Mikhail A.
Downs, Pamela
Shetzline, Michael A.
Chilingerian, Raffy
Cohard-Radice, Marielle
Publication Title: 
Biology Letters

We test the hypothesis that polymorphisms of the brain regulator genes MCPH1 and ASPM contribute to variations in human brain size and its correlates. We measured general mental ability, head circumference and social intelligence in 644 Canadian adults (496 Caucasians, 36 Orientals, 84 Mixed Race/Other and 28 Blacks; 257 men and 387 women). The gene polymorphisms were assessed from buccal DNA; mental ability by Wonderlic Personnel Test and Multidimensional Aptitude Battery; head circumference by stretchless tape; and social intelligence by prosocial attitude questionnaires.

Author(s): 
Rushton, J. Philippe
Vernon, Philip A.
Bons, Trudy Ann

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