Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
How are hormonal contraceptives (HCs) related to marital well-being? Some work suggests HCs suppress biological processes associated with women's preferences for partner qualities reflective of genetic fitness, qualities that may be summarized by facial attractiveness. Given that realizing such interpersonal preferences positively predicts relationship satisfaction, any changes in women's preferences associated with changes in their HC use may interact with partner facial attractiveness to predict women's relationship satisfaction.
Pippaliyadi yoga or pippaliyadi vati is an ayurvedic contraceptive used in India since ancient times. It is a combination of powdered fruit berries of Embelia ribes Burm.f. (Myrsinaceae), Piper longum L. (Piperaceae) and borax in equal proportion. Though the contraceptive potential is known since ancient times, no systematic developmental toxicity studies have been carried out. The present study was carried out to evaluate the postnatal developmental toxicity and the reproductive performance of the progeny exposed in utero to pippaliyadi.
Dysmenorrhea is the leading cause of recurrent short-term school absence in adolescent girls and a common problem in women of reproductive age. Risk factors for dysmenorrhea include nulliparity, heavy menstrual flow, smoking, and depression. Empiric therapy can be initiated based on a typical history of painful menses and a negative physical examination. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are the initial therapy of choice in patients with presumptive primary dysmenorrhea. Oral contraceptives and depo-medroxyprogesterone acetate also may be considered.