Control Groups

Publication Title: 
The British Journal of Clinical Psychology

PURPOSE: An emerging body of evidence has shown the therapeutic effect of both mindful and non-mindful physical exercises on the treatment of depression. The purpose of this study is to examine the effectiveness of mindful and non-mindful physical exercises as an intervention in managing depression or depressive symptoms based on a systematic literature review. METHODS: Our review was conducted among five electronic databases to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs), which tested the effects of mindful or/and non-mindful physical exercises on depression.

Tsang, Hector W. H.
Chan, Edward P.
Cheung, W. M.
Publication Title: 
Homeopathy: The Journal of the Faculty of Homeopathy

OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the research evidence on the effectiveness of homeopathy for the treatment of depression and depressive disorders. METHODS: A comprehensive search of major biomedical databases including MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO and the Cochrane Library was conducted. Specialist complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) databases including AMED, CISCOM and Hom-Inform were also searched. Additionally, efforts were made to identify unpublished and ongoing research using relevant sources and experts in the field.

Pilkington, K.
Kirkwood, G.
Rampes, H.
Fisher, P.
Richardson, J.
Publication Title: 
Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice

BACKGROUND: The randomized controlled trial (RCT) is considered the 'gold standard' methodology for evaluating efficacy of an intervention. It has been argued that RCTs cannot be used to examine the effectiveness of acupuncture. PURPOSE: The purpose of this paper is to examine the applicability of an RCT study design for acupuncture research. FINDINGS: RCTs would be more effective in studying acupuncture if study participants were randomized to groups based on the acupuncture diagnosis and not solely on the Western diagnostic criteria.

Walji, Rishma
Boon, Heather
Publication Title: 
BMC complementary and alternative medicine

BACKGROUND: Scientific interest in acupuncture has led numerous investigators to conduct clinical trials to test the efficacy of acupuncture for various conditions, but the mechanisms underlying acupuncture are poorly understood. METHODS: The author conducted a PubMed search to obtain a fair sample of acupuncture clinical trials published in English in 2005. Each article was reviewed for a physiologic rationale, as well as study objectives and outcomes, experimental and control interventions, country of origin, funding sources and journal type.

Moffet, Howard H.
Publication Title: 
PloS One

BACKGROUND: In a recent individual patient data meta-analysis, acupuncture was found to be superior to both sham and non-sham controls in patients with chronic pain. In this paper we identify variations in types of sham and non-sham controls used and analyze their impact on the effect size of acupuncture. METHODS: Based on literature searches of acupuncture trials involving patients with headache and migraine, osteoarthritis, and back, neck and shoulder pain, 29 trials met inclusion criteria, 20 involving sham controls (n = 5,230) and 18 non-sham controls (n = 14,597).

MacPherson, Hugh
Vertosick, Emily
Lewith, George
Linde, Klaus
Sherman, Karen J.
Witt, Claudia M.
Vickers, Andrew J.
Acupuncture Trialists' Collaboration
Publication Title: 
Archives of Sexual Behavior

To study the social and psychological consequences of induced abortion on the relationship between the pregnant woman and her partner, 92 patients seeking a socially indicated abortion, who had a stable partner at the time of abortion, were interviewed. Standardized psychological measures were used to assess their partnerships before abortion and on follow-up 1 year later.

Barnett, W.
Freudenberg, N.
Wille, R.
Publication Title: 
Psychological Medicine

BACKGROUND: Social dysfunction in personality disorder is commonly ascribed to abnormal temperamental traits but may also reflect deficits in social processing. In this study, we examined whether borderline and avoidant personality disorders (BPD, APD) may be differentiated by deficits in different social domains and whether disorganization of social domain functioning uniquely characterizes BPD. METHOD: Patients were recruited from psychiatric clinics in Pittsburgh, USA, to provide a sample with BPD, APD and a no-personality disorder (no-PD) comparison group.

Hill, J.
Pilkonis, P.
Morse, J.
Feske, U.
Reynolds, S.
Hope, H.
Charest, C.
Broyden, N.
Publication Title: 
Psychological Reports

This study tested the effect of semantically induced thoughts of love on helping behavior. In a natural setting, 253 participants were interviewed and asked to retrieve the memory of a love episode or, in the control condition, a piece of music they loved. They then met another confederate who asked for money. Analysis showed that inducing the idea of love had a significant positive effect on compliance to a request by a male passerby who was asked for help by a female confederate, but not by a female passerby.

Lamy, Lubomir
Fischer-Lokou, Jacques
GuÈguen, Nicolas
Publication Title: 

Attitudes toward clinical research, the focus of recent and damaging media attention, were assessed through questionnaires completed anonymously by 104 patients with cancer, 84 cardiology patients, and 107 members of the general public. Responses differed neither by subgroup nor by demographic variables. Data are therefore reported on the total population of 295 subjects. Most respondents (71%) believed that patients should serve as research subjects.

Cassileth, B. R.
Lusk, E. J.
Miller, D. S.
Hurwitz, S.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Clinical Psychology

This randomized pilot study investigated the effects of meditation with yoga (and psychoeducation) versus group therapy with hypnosis (and psychoeducation) versus psychoeducation alone on diagnostic status and symptom levels among 46 individuals with long-term depressive disorders. Results indicate that significantly more meditation group participants experienced a remission than did controls at 9-month follow-up. Eight hypnosis group participants also experienced a remission, but the difference from controls was not statistically significant.

Butler, Lisa D.
Waelde, Lynn C.
Hastings, T. Andrew
Chen, Xin-Hua
Symons, Barbara
Marshall, Jonathan
Kaufman, Adam
Nagy, Thomas F.
Blasey, Christine M.
Seibert, Elizabeth O.
Spiegel, David


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