Coronary Vessels

Publication Title: 
American Journal of Human Genetics

We previously identified a functional variant of KLOTHO (termed "KL-VS"), which harbors two amino acid substitutions in complete linkage disequilibrium and is associated with reduced human longevity when in homozygosity. Klotho-deficient mice display extensive arteriosclerosis when fed a normal diet, suggesting a potent genetic predisposition.

Author(s): 
Arking, Dan E.
Becker, Diane M.
Yanek, Lisa R.
Fallin, Daniele
Judge, Daniel P.
Moy, Taryn F.
Becker, Lewis C.
Dietz, Harry C.
Publication Title: 
The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews

BACKGROUND: Recurrent chest pain in the absence of coronary artery disease is a common problem that sometimes leads to excess use of medical care. Although many studies examine the causes of pain in these patients, few clinical trials have evaluated treatment. The studies reviewed in this paper provide an insight into the effectiveness of psychological interventions for this group of patients. OBJECTIVES: To update the previously published systematic review.

Author(s): 
Kisely, Steve R.
Campbell, Leslie Anne
Yelland, Michael J.
Paydar, Anita
Publication Title: 
International Journal of Cardiology

PURPOSE: It has been reported that mental stress is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular events and impairs coronary circulation. Lavender aromatherapy, one of the most popular complementary treatments, is recognized as a beneficial mental relaxation therapy. However, no study has examined the effect of this therapy on coronary circulation. We aimed to assess the effect of lavender aromatherapy on coronary circulation by measuring coronary flow velocity reserve (CFVR) with noninvasive transthoracic Doppler echocardiography (TTDE).

Author(s): 
Shiina, Yumi
Funabashi, Nobusada
Lee, Kwangho
Toyoda, Tomohiko
Sekine, Tai
Honjo, Sachiko
Hasegawa, Rei
Kawata, Takayuki
Wakatsuki, Yu
Hayashi, Shinichiro
Murakami, Shio
Koike, Kazuo
Daimon, Masao
Komuro, Issei
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology

OBJECTIVES: Inula racemosa Hook. f. is indicated for precordial chest pain in Ayurveda. In this study, the effects of a hexane (IrH) and an alcohol extract (IrA) of Inula racemosa on atherosclerosis induced by a high-fat diet in guinea-pigs were investigated. METHODS: After 30 days on a high-fat diet (guinea-pig pellet diet + 0.2% w/w cholesterol) six animals were killed and evaluated for the onset of early atherosclerotic changes in coronary artery, aorta and major organs.

Author(s): 
Mangathayaru, Kalachaveedu
Kuruvilla, Sarah
Balakrishna, Kedike
Venkhatesh, Jayakothandaramaswamy
Publication Title: 
Circulation

BACKGROUND: In addition to being a risk marker for cardiovascular disease, much recent data suggest that C-reactive protein (CRP) promotes atherogenesis. Decreased endothelial NO and prostacyclin (PGI2) contribute to a proatherogenic and prothrombotic state. We have shown that CRP decreases endothelial NO synthase expression and bioactivity in human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs). PGI2 is a potent vasodilator and inhibitor of platelet aggregation. Hence, the aim of this study was to examine the effect of CRP on PGI2 release from HAECs and human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs).

Author(s): 
Venugopal, Senthil Kumar
Devaraj, Sridevi
Jialal, Ishwarlal
Publication Title: 
The American Journal of Pathology

C-reactive protein (CRP) is a risk marker for cardiovascular events in apparently healthy persons. Cogent data show that, aside from the liver, CRP is produced in atherosclerotic lesions, kidney, neurons, and alveolar macrophages. Because several proatherogenic effects of CRP have been documented in endothelial cells, we examined human aortic endothelial cells (HAEC) for CRP production. We detected the presence of CRP mRNA by RT-PCR and in situ hybridization, intracellular protein by Western blot and secreted protein by ELISA.

Author(s): 
Venugopal, Senthil Kumar
Devaraj, Sridevi
Jialal, Ishwarlal
Publication Title: 
American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology

We investigated a causal role for coronary endothelial dysfunction in development of monocrotaline (MCT)-induced pulmonary hypertension and right heart hypertrophy in rats. Significant increases in pulmonary pressure and right ventricular weight did not occur until 3 wk after 60 mg/kg MCT injection (34 +/- 4 vs. 19 +/- 2 mmHg and 37 +/- 2 vs. 25 +/- 1% septum + left ventricular weight in controls, respectively).

Author(s): 
Sun, Xiaowei
Ku, David D.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Vascular Surgery

BACKGROUND: Defensins are cysteine-rich cationic polypeptides released from neutrophils that exhibit powerful antimicrobial activities. Because inflammation, including neutrophil infiltration and release of defensins, may play an important role in atherosclerosis and other vascular diseases, we determined whether alpha-defensin could cause endothelial dysfunction, a major initial event of atherosclerosis, in porcine coronary arteries. METHODS: Porcine coronary arteries were sliced into 5-mm rings and treated with different concentrations of human recombinant alpha-defensin for 24 hours.

Author(s): 
Kougias, Panagiotis
Chai, Hong
Lin, Peter H.
Yao, Qizhi
Lumsden, Alan B.
Chen, Changyi
Publication Title: 
Cardiovascular Research

OBJECTIVE: Resistin may be associated with obesity and cardiovascular diseases. However, it is unknown whether resistin directly contributes to angiogenesis. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of resistin on angiogenic potential, including endothelial cell proliferation, migration, and capillary-like tube formation. METHODS: Human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs) were treated with resistin. Cell proliferation was evaluated by [3H]thymidine incorporation and MTS assays. Cell migration was assessed by a modified Boyden chamber assay.

Author(s): 
Mu, Hong
Ohashi, Ryuji
Yan, Shaoyu
Chai, Hong
Yang, Hui
Lin, Peter
Yao, Qizhi
Chen, Changyi
Publication Title: 
American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology

We recently reported that coronary endothelial cell (CEC) dysfunction may contribute to the development of right ventricular (RV) hypertrophy (RVH) in monocrotaline (MCT)-induced pulmonary hypertensive rats. This present study investigated whether preservation of CEC function with garlic and its active metabolite allicin could abrogate RVH. Rats were fed with 1% raw garlic (RG)-supplemented diet 1 day or 3 wk before and 1 day after MCT injection, and changes in RV pressure (RVP), RVH, and CEC function were assessed 3 wk after MCT administration.

Author(s): 
Sun, Xiaowei
Ku, David D.

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