Calorie restriction increases longevity in rodents, delays the onset of certain diseases and has positive effects on ageing. Studies are ongoing in non-human primates. Eight persons following such a diet for 2 years reacted as anticipated (loss of body weight and fat, decrease in glycaemia and body temperature, etc.). Calorie restriction perhaps teaches us more on the means of resisting malnutrition than on ageing in normal dietary conditions. Calorie restriction is a tool for research, but it should not be recommended by practitioners, notably in elderly patients.
Information technology is being used to collect data directly from patients and to provide educational information to them. Concern over patient reactions to this use of information technology is especially important in light of the debate over whether computers dehumanize patients. This study reports reactions that patient users expressed in ethnographic interviews about using a computer-based telecommunications system.
The present study was an investigation of the premarital status of engagement in terms of relationship satisfaction and marital expectations using the Evaluation and Nurturing Relationship Issues, Communication and Happiness (ENRICH) Marital Satisfaction Scale (EMS) and its two subscales of Idealistic Distortion (ID) and Marital Satisfaction (MS) (D. G. Fournier, D. H. Olson, & J. M. Druckman, 1983). There were 104 students (23 men and 81 women), of which 15 were married, 19 were engaged, and 70 had extended dating relationships.
The author describes an alternative approach that care-providers may want to consider when caring for patients who request interventions that careproviders see as futile. This approach is based, in part, on findings of recent neuroimaging research. The author also provides several examples of seemingly justifiable "paternalistic omissions," taken from articles in this issue of The Journal of Clinical Ethics (JCE).
BACKGROUND: Couples-based HIV counseling and testing (CHCT) is a proven strategy to reduce the risk of HIV transmission between partners, but uptake of CHCT is low. We describe the study design of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) aimed to increase participation in CHCT and reduce sexual risk behavior for HIV among heterosexual couples in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. We hypothesize that the rate of participation in CHCT will be higher and sexual risk behavior will be lower in the intervention group as compared to the control.
Our purpose in this study was to understand the importance of male partner support in the childbearing decision-making processes of women living with HIV/AIDS (WLHA) by exploring their perceptions of support after disclosure, prepartum, and postpartum. We conducted in-depth interviews with 15 WLHA who were receiving clinical HIV care at a teaching hospital in Lagos. Results show that all male partners were consistently supportive, except the partner of the only unmarried participant.
Primary care physicians may often see patients with transient emotional or behavioral problems. Brief office counseling is an action-oriented treatment method that requires the physician to develop both a therapeutic relationship and behavioral contract with the patient. The physician needs to create a secure, permissive, and confidential atmosphere in which the patient can feel comfortable to discuss freely his innermost thoughts and feelings.
Increasing numbers of students with severe personality disorders are presenting for psychological services at college and university counseling centers. The influx of these students poses a number of ethical dilemmas for counseling centers. Clinical decisions about appropriate treatment modalities, philosophical decisions about agency mission, and available resources to carry defined missions converge and influence ethical decisions in this area.
European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
OBJECTIVES: To find out if young women have specific problems with the use of contraception or contraceptive services. STUDY DESIGN: A national postal survey was conducted, RR 74%. Women aged 18-34 years (with experience of contraceptive use) were included in this report (n=1239). RESULTS: Weekly need for contraception was highest in the age group 18-24 years (61%), oral contraception being the most widely used method regardless of parity. Condoms were used by 35-37% in all age groups, either alone or combined with oral contraceptives (17% of young nulliparas).