BACKGROUND: Plasmodium falciparum malaria remains a major public health problem. A vital component of malaria control rests on the availability of good quality artemisinin-derivative based combination therapy (ACT) at the correct dose. However, there are increasing reports of poor quality anti-malarials in Africa. METHODS: Seven collections of artemisinin derivative monotherapies, ACT and halofantrine anti-malarials of suspicious quality were collected in 2002/10 in eleven African countries and in Asia en route to Africa.
BACKGROUND: Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is currently the recommended first-line treatment for uncomplicated malaria infections. However, a significant proportion of ACT is assumed to be of poor quality, particularly in Africa. In addition, little is known about how treatment-seeking behaviour of individuals or drug price is associated with drug quality. METHODS: Caregivers of children less than 5 years of age were interviewed on their knowledge of malaria and their choices for treatment.
BACKGROUND: Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) plays an indispensable role in malaria control and elimination. However, the circulation of counterfeit, substandard drugs has greatly threatened malaria elimination campaigns. Most methods for the analysis of artemisinin and its derivatives require expensive equipment and sophisticated instrumentation. A convenient, easy-to-use diagnostic device for rapid evaluation of the quality of artemisinin drugs at the point-of-care is still lacking.
BACKGROUND: The counterfeiting of anti-malarials represents a form of attack on global public health in which fake and substandard anti-malarials serve as de facto weapons of mass destruction, particularly in resource-constrained endemic settings, where malaria causes nearly 660,000 preventable deaths and threatens millions of lives annually. It has been estimated that fake anti-malarials contribute to nearly 450,000 preventable deaths every year. This crime against humanity is often underestimated or ignored.
The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
There is an urgent need for accurate and inexpensive handheld instruments for the evaluation of medicine quality in the field. A blinded evaluation of the diagnostic accuracy of the Counterfeit Detection Device 3 (CD-3), developed by the US Food and Drug Administration Forensic Chemistry Center, was conducted in the Lao People's Democratic Republic. Two hundred three samples of the oral antimalarial artesunate were compared with authentic products using the CD-3 by a trainer and two trainees.
Chinese patent medicines (CPM) are highly processed and easy to use Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). The market for CPM in China alone is tens of billions US dollars annually and some of the CPM are also used as dietary supplements for health augmentation in the western countries. But concerns continue to be raised about the legality, safety and efficacy of many popular CPM. Here we report a pioneer work of applying molecular biotechnology to the identification of CPM, particularly well refined oral liquids and injections.
Analytical Sciences: The International Journal of the Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry
Illegal chemicals, which could cause unpredictable side effects, may be added into traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for a rapid healing effect. In this report, a surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) analysis method for five kinds of illegally added drugs (rosiglitazone maleate, phenformin hydrochloride, metformin hydrochloride, pioglitazone hydrochloride and sibutramine hydrochloride) in Chinese traditional patent medicine (CTPM) has been demonstrated, including simultaneous detections of drug mixtures with CTPM.