Cross-Over Studies

Publication Title: 
Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine (New York, N.Y.)

BACKGROUND: Sustained and subtle hyperventilation can result in a wide variety of symptoms, leading to a chronic condition that has been termed hyperventilation syndrome (HVS). Treatment options include physiotherapy, in the form of breathing retraining (BR), but additional approaches aim to reduce the anxiety that is recognized as being a frequent component of this condition.

Gibson, Denise
Bruton, Anne
Lewith, George T.
Mullee, Mark
Publication Title: 
Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry / Official Journal of the Nitric Oxide Society

BACKGROUND: Japanese longevity is the highest in the world. This is partly explained by low occurrence of cardiovascular diseases, which in turn is attributed to the Japanese traditional diet (JTD). Recent research demonstrates that nitric oxide (NO), a key regulator of vascular integrity, can be generated from nitrate (NO(3)(-)), abundantly found in vegetables. It can reduce blood pressure (BP) via its serial reduction to nitrite (NO(2)(-)) and to bioactive NO. Interestingly, JTD is extremely rich in nitrate and the daily consumption is higher than in any other known diet.

Sobko, Tanja
Marcus, Claude
Govoni, Mirco
Kamiya, Shigeru
Publication Title: 
Journal of Cystic Fibrosis: Official Journal of the European Cystic Fibrosis Society

BACKGROUND: Current nutritional approaches have been partially successful in Cystic Fibrosis (CF). Essential amino acids mixtures with high Leucine levels (EAA) have anabolic properties in catabolic conditions, however data in CF are lacking. METHODS: On two days according a randomized crossover design, 15 pediatric CF patients ingested 6.7 g EAA versus mixture of total amino acids as present in whey. Whole body protein and Arginine metabolism (as EAA lack Arginine) were assessed by stable isotope methodology.

Engelen, MariÎlle P. K. J.
Com, Gulnur
Wolfe, Robert R.
Deutz, Nicolaas E. P.
Publication Title: 
Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry

OBJECTIVES: The "neurotrophin hypothesis" of depression posits a role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in depression, although it is unknown whether BDNF is more involved in the etiology of depression or in the mechanism of action of antidepressants. It is also unknown whether pre-treatment serum BDNF levels predict antidepressant response. METHODS: Thirty un-medicated depressed subjects were treated with escitalopram (N=16) or sertraline (N=14) for 8 weeks. Twenty-five of the depressed subjects completed 8 weeks of antidepressant treatment and had analyzable data.

Wolkowitz, Owen M.
Wolf, Jessica
Shelly, Wendy
Rosser, Rebecca
Burke, Heather M.
Lerner, George K.
Reus, Victor I.
Nelson, J. Craig
Epel, Elissa S.
Mellon, Synthia H.
Publication Title: 
Breast (Edinburgh, Scotland)

BACKGROUND: The 2 Cohort randomised PrefHer trial examined the preferences of HER2+ve primary breast cancer patients for intravenous (IV) or subcutaneous (SC) delivery of trastuzumab via a Single Injectable Device (SID) or hand-held syringe (HHS). The novel approach and design of the study permitted an in-depth exploration of patients' experiences, the impact that different modes of delivery had on patients' well-being and implications for future management.

Fallowfield, L.
Osborne, S.
Langridge, C.
Monson, K.
Kilkerr, J.
Jenkins, V.
Publication Title: 
Controlled Clinical Trials

While randomised controlled trials remain the accepted 'gold standard' in medical research, participant recruitment is often problematic, particularly with primary care trials or those requiring healthy volunteers. Such difficulties can jeopardise the trial, leading to early abandonment, reduced statistical power or timetable and budget overruns. Substantial changes in recruitment plans may reduce the generalisability of the research.

Gabbay, Mark
Thomas, Joanna
Publication Title: 

Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a GHB-/GABAB-receptor agonist. Reports from GHB abusers indicate euphoric, prosocial, and empathogenic effects of the drug. We measured the effects of GHB on mood, prosocial behavior, social and non-social cognition and assessed potential underlying neuroendocrine mechanisms. GHB (20mg/kg) was tested in 16 healthy males, using a randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over design. Subjective effects on mood were assessed by visual-analogue-scales and the GHB-Specific-Questionnaire.

Bosch, Oliver G.
Eisenegger, Christoph
Gertsch, J¸rg
von Rotz, Robin
Dornbierer, Dario
Gachet, M. SalomÈ
Heinrichs, Markus
Wetter, Thomas C.
Seifritz, Erich
Quednow, Boris B.
Publication Title: 
Anesthesia and Analgesia

The intravenous anesthetics which are commonly used for electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) possess dose-dependent anticonvulsant properties. Since the clinical efficacy of ECT depends on the induction of a seizure of adequate duration, it is important to determine the optimal dose of the hypnotic for use during ECT. We compared the duration of seizure activity and cognitive recovery profiles after different doses of methohexital, propofol, and etomidate administered to induce hypnosis prior to ECT.

Avramov, M. N.
Husain, M. M.
White, P. F.
Publication Title: 
Behavior Modification

There is evidence that preference for a given therapy may influence results. Literature also suggests that hypnotizability may be elevated in agoraphobic patients, making hypnosis a potentially powerful method for treatment. Agoraphobic patients (N = 64) were treated with either exposure in vivo or exposure combined with hypnosis in a crossover design. Half of the patients started with the treatment they preferred and the other half received the other treatment first.

Van Dyck, R.
Spinhoven, P.
Publication Title: 
The International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis

This study reexamined Spanos, Hodgins, Stam, and Gwynn's (1984) contention that susceptibility testing order effects generated a relationship between waking analgesia pain reduction and level of hypnotic responsiveness. Undergraduate volunteers with no previous hypnosis experience were randomly assigned to two groups. Group 1 (n = 69) first received a cold pressor pain protocol, and then was administered the Standford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale, Form C (SHSS:C). Group 2 (n = 69) was administered the SHSS:C prior to the cold pressor pain protocol.

Brodeur, J. B.
Kurtz, R. M.
Strube, M. J.


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