Crystallization

Publication Title: 
Biomaterials

Electronic retinal implants for the blind are already a market reality. A world wide effort is underway to find the technology that offers the best combination of performance and safety for potential patients. Our approach is to construct an epi-retinally targeted device entirely encapsulated in diamond to maximise longevity and biocompatibility. The stimulating array of our device comprises a monolith of electrically insulating diamond with thousands of hermetic, microscale nitrogen doped ultra-nanocrystalline diamond (N-UNCD) feedthroughs.

Author(s): 
Hadjinicolaou, Alex E.
Leung, Ronald T.
Garrett, David J.
Ganesan, Kumaravelu
Fox, Kate
Nayagam, David A. X.
Shivdasani, Mohit N.
Meffin, Hamish
Ibbotson, Michael R.
Prawer, Steven
O'Brien, Brendan J.
Publication Title: 
Biochemical Pharmacology

Nitrobenzodiazepine (NBDZ) is an addictive drug of the abused substances that causes severe neurological effects and even death. Bacterial type I nitroreductase NfsB (EC 1.5.1.34) has been reported to catalyze NBDZ into inactive metabolite 7-amino-benzodiazepine (7ABDZ) with promising activity, so as to become an attractive candidate for treatment of NBDZ overdose and addiction. Here, we investigate the nitroreduction of an NBDZ, flunitrazepam (FZ), by various mutants of NfsB designed from the solved crystal structure and characterize their in vitro and in vivo potency.

Author(s): 
LinWu, Shiuan-Woei
Wu, Che-An
Peng, Fu-Chuo
Wang, Andrew H.-J.
Publication Title: 
International Journal of Nanomedicine

We developed a novel method to prepare nanocapsules. A solute often crystallizes when its solubility alters from one solvent to another, and its firstborn crystals are used as templates to prepare nanocapsules for the first time, which is called firstborn microcrystallization method. By using this method, the maximum diameter of the nanocapsules including artesunate is about 76 nm, and wrapping state is well.

Author(s): 
Xiao, Xin-Cai
Hong, Zong-Guo
Publication Title: 
PloS One

BACKGROUND: Hemozoin crystals are normally formed in vivo by Plasmodium parasites to detoxify free heme released after hemoglobin digestion during its intraerythrocytic stage. Inhibition of hemozoin formation by various drugs results in free heme concentration toxic for the parasites. As a consequence, in vitro assays have been developed to screen and select candidate antimalarial drugs based on their capacity to inhibit hemozoin formation.

Author(s): 
Thomas, Vincent
Góis, Ana
Ritts, Bruce
Burke, Peter
Hänscheid, Thomas
McDonnell, Gerald
Publication Title: 
International Journal of Pharmaceutics

Artemether (AM) plus azithromycin (AZ) rectal co-formulations were studied to provide pre-referral treatment for children with severe febrile illnesses in malaria-endemic areas. The target profile required that such product should be cheap, easy to administer by non-medically qualified persons, rapidly effective against both malaria and bacterial infections. Analytical and pharmacotechnical development, followed by in vitro and in vivo evaluation, were conducted for various AMAZ coformulations.

Author(s): 
Gaubert, Alexandra
Kauss, Tina
Marchivie, Mathieu
Ba, Boubakar B.
Lembege, Martine
Fawaz, Fawaz
Boiron, Jean-Michel
Lafarge, Xavier
Lindegardh, Niklas
Fabre, Jean-Louis
White, Nicholas J.
Olliaro, Piero L.
Millet, Pascal
Grislain, Luc
Gaudin, Karen
Publication Title: 
International Braz J Urol: Official Journal of the Brazilian Society of Urology

PURPOSE: Recurrence and persistent side effects of present day treatment for urolithiasis restrict their use, so an alternate solution, using phytotherapy is being sought. The present study attempted to evaluate the antilithiatic properties of Tribulus terrestris commonly called as "gokhru" which is often used in ayurveda to treat various urinary diseases including urolithiasis.

Author(s): 
Aggarwal, A.
Tandon, S.
Singla, S. K.
Tandon, C.
Publication Title: 
Fitoterapia

Several Ayurvedic plants are known to have activity against diverse urinary crystals. The traditional knowledge of Ayurveda, collective clinical experience in arthritis and the earlier experimental studies on urinary crystals led to the selection of three plants, viz. Rotula aquatica, Commiphora wightii Bhandari syn. C.mukul. and Boerhaavia diffusa for screening anticrystal activity against basic calcium phosphate (BCP), calcium pyrophosphate (CPPD) and monosodium urate monohydrate (MSUM). The effects of each plant were assayed on microcrystals in 24-well microplates in vitro.

Author(s): 
Raut, Ashwinikumar A.
Sunder, Sudha
Sarkar, Subrata
Pandita, Nancy S.
Vaidya, Ashok D. B.
Publication Title: 
International Braz J Urol: Official Journal of the Brazilian Society of Urology

PURPOSE: Recurrence and persistent side effects of present day treatment for urolithiasis restrict their use, so an alternate solution, using phytotherapy is being sought. The present study attempted to evaluate the antilithiatic properties of Tribulus terrestris commonly called as "gokhru" which is often used in ayurveda to treat various urinary diseases including urolithiasis.

Author(s): 
Aggarwal, A.
Tandon, S.
Singla, S. K.
Tandon, C.
Publication Title: 
Acta Crystallographica. Section F, Structural Biology and Crystallization Communications

PrTX-I, a noncatalytic and myotoxic Lys49-phospholipase A(2) from Bothrops pirajai venom, was crystallized in the presence of the inhibitor rosmarinic acid (RA). This is the active compound in the methanolic extract of Cordia verbenacea, a plant that is largely used in Brazilian folk medicine. The crystals diffracted X-rays to 1.8 A resolution and the structure was solved by molecular-replacement techniques, showing electron density that corresponds to RA molecules at the entrance to the hydrophobic channel.

Author(s): 
dos Santos, Juliana I.
Santos-Filho, Norival A.
Soares, Andreimar M.
Fontes, Marcos R. M.
Publication Title: 
Acta Crystallographica. Section F, Structural Biology and Crystallization Communications

Phospholipases A(2) (PLA(2)s) are one of the main components of bothropic venoms; in addition to their phospholipid hydrolysis action, they are involved in a wide spectrum of pharmacological activities, including neurotoxicity, myotoxicity and cardiotoxicity. Caffeic acid is an inhibitor that is present in several plants and is employed for the treatment of ophidian envenomations in the folk medicine of many developing countries; as bothropic snake bites are not efficiently neutralized by conventional serum therapy, it may be useful as an antivenom.

Author(s): 
Shimabuku, Patrícia S.
Fernandes, Carlos A. H.
Magro, Angelo J.
Costa, Tássia R.
Soares, Andreimar M.
Fontes, Marcos R. M.

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