Adipose tissue plays a pivotal role in ageing and longevity; many studies, both human and animal, have focussed on the effects of food limitation. Here we present a new model based on striking differences between two 'normal' inbred strains of albino Wistar rats the Charles River (CR) and Harlan Olac (HO) that have marked differences in age-related accumulation of fat and insulin-stimulated rates of glucose incorporation into lipid in the epididymal fat pads (EFP).
The human hypothalamus produces an endogenous membrane Na+-K+ ATPase inhibitor, digoxin, which can regulate neuronal transmission. The digoxin status and neurotransmitter patterns were studied in individuals with a predilection to fall in love. It was also studied in individuals with differing hemispheric dominance to find out the role of cerebral dominance in this respect.
The effect of various nucleotides and adenosine on the hepatic biotransformation of hexobarbital sodium (HB) and p-chloro-N-methylaniline (PCMA) was determined in male rats. Intraperitoneal administration of dibutyryl cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (DBcAMP), alone and in combination with theophylline, and the cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP)-theophylline combination prolonged HB sleeping time by more than 70%.
The two New Zealand tea-tree oils, Manuka (Leptospermum scoparium J.R. et G. Forst) and Kanuka (Kunzea ericoides (A. Rich) J. Thompson), Myrtaceae have been used as folk medicines for treating diarrhoea, colds and inflammation but their pharmacological action has not been investigated. Their mode of action was therefore studied on the field-stimulated guinea-pig ileum. Both Manuka and Kanuka oils induced a spasmolytic effect but Kanuka produced an initial contraction. The spasmolytic action of both oils was the result of a post-synaptic mechanism.
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that shows cognitive deficits and memory impairment. Extract from the leaves of Gotu Kola (Centella Asiatica) have been used as an alternative medicine for memory improvement in Indian Ayurvedic system of medicine for a long time. Although several studies have revealed its effect in ameliorating the cognitive impairment in rat models of AD and stimulating property on neuronal dendrites of hippocampal region, the molecular mechanism of Gotu Kola on neuroprotection still remains to be elucidated.
Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
OBJECTIVE: C-Reactive protein (CRP), a cardiovascular risk marker, could also participate in atherosclerosis. Atherosclerotic plaques express CRP and interleukin (IL)-10, a major antiinflammatory cytokine. IL-10 deficiency results in increased lesion formation, whereas IL-10 delivery attenuates lesions. We tested the effect of CRP on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced IL-10 secretion in human monocyte-derived macrophages (HMDMs).
The zebrafish model system is one of the most widely used animal models for developmental research and it is now becoming an attractive model for drug discovery and toxicological screening. The completion of sequencing the zebrafish genome and the availability of full-length cDNAs and DNA microarrays for expression analysis, in addition to techniques for generating transgenic lines and targeted mutations, have made the zebrafish model even more attractive to researchers.
American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
An ethanolic extract of Russian tarragon, Artemisia dracunculus L., with antihyperglycemic activity in animal models was reported to decrease phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) mRNA expression in STZ-induced diabetic rats. A quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay was developed for the bioactivity-guided purification of the compounds within the extract that decrease PEPCK expression. The assay was based on the inhibition of dexamethasone-stimulated PEPCK upregulation in an H4IIE hepatoma cell line.
The antioxidant lipoic acid (LA) treats and prevents the animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS), experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). In an effort to understand the therapeutic potential of LA in MS, we sought to define the cellular mechanisms that mediate the effects of LA on human natural killer (NK) cells, which are important in innate immunity as the first line of defense against invading pathogens and tumor cells. We discovered that LA stimulates cAMP production in NK cells in a dose-dependent manner.
Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry: International Journal of Experimental Cellular Physiology, Biochemistry, and Pharmacology
Little is known about the relationship between CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene expression and the corresponding transport of Cl. The phenotypic characteristics of polarized DeltaF508 homozygote CF bronchial epithelial (CFBE41o-) cells were evaluated following transfection with episomal expression vector containing either full-length (6.2kb) wild type (wt) and (4.7kb) DeltaF508CFTR cDNA.