Cyclic GMP

Publication Title: 
Cancer Research

Patients with chronic inflammatory bowel disease have a high risk of colon cancer. The molecules that initiate and promote colon cancer and the cancer pathways altered remain undefined. Here, using in vitro models and a mouse model of colitis, we show that nitric oxide (NO) species induce retinoblastoma protein (pRb) hyperphosphorylation and inactivation, resulting in increased proliferation through the pRb-E2F1 pathway.

Author(s): 
Ying, Lei
Hofseth, Anne B.
Browning, Darren D.
Nagarkatti, Mitzi
Nagarkatti, Prakash S.
Hofseth, Lorne J.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology

C-reactive protein (CRP), a cardiovascular risk marker, induces endothelial dysfunction. We have previously shown that CRP decreases endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression and bioactivity in human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs). In this study, we examined the mechanisms by which CRP decreases eNOS activity in HAECs. To this end, we explored different strategies such as availability of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4)-a critical cofactor for eNOS, superoxide (O(2)(-)) production resulting in uncoupling of eNOS and phosphorylation/dephosphorylation of eNOS.

Author(s): 
Singh, Uma
Devaraj, Sridevi
Vasquez-Vivar, Jeannette
Jialal, Ishwarlal
Publication Title: 
Microcirculation (New York, N.Y.: 1994)

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine the release of nitric oxide (NO) and cGMP in response to electroacupuncture (EA) stimulation in the acupuncture point (acupoint), compared to the non-meridian control area. METHODS: Thirty samples of dermal microdialysis data were collected from 24 volunteers at pericardium (PC) 4 and control area. EA was applied to PC 3 by using a 5-V pulse with a duration of 1.0 milliseconds at 10 Hz for 15 minutes. Dialysate samples were continuously collected 20 minutes each before, during, and after EA for two hours.

Author(s): 
Jou, Nainn-Tsyr
Ma, Sheng-Xing
Publication Title: 
Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.)

The purposes of these studies were to quantify the concentrations of total nitrate and nitrite (NO(x)(-)) cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), and nitrotyrosine over skin surface in normal weight healthy volunteers (n = 64) compared to overweight/obese subjects (n = 54). A semi-circular plastic tube was taped to the skin along acupuncture points (acupoints), meridian line without acupoint (MWOP), and nonmeridian control and filled with a 2-Phenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-3-oxide-1-oxyl solution for 20 min.

Author(s): 
Ma, Sheng-Xing
Li, Xi-Yan
Smith, Brian T.
Jou, Nainn-Tsyr
Publication Title: 
American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology

The consumption of cacao-derived (i.e., cocoa) products provides beneficial cardiovascular effects in healthy subjects as well as individuals with endothelial dysfunction such as smokers, diabetics, and postmenopausal women. The vascular actions of cocoa are related to enhanced nitric oxide (NO) production. These actions can be reproduced by the administration of the cacao flavanol (-)-epicatechin (EPI).

Author(s): 
Ramirez-Sanchez, Israel
Maya, Lisandro
Ceballos, Guillermo
Villarreal, Francisco
Publication Title: 
Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology

This study examined the effect of schisandrin, one of the major lignans isolated from Schisandra chinensis, on spontaneous contraction in rat colon and its possible mechanisms. Schisandrin produced a concentration-dependent inhibition (EC₅₀=1.66 μM) on the colonic spontaneous contraction.

Author(s): 
Yang, Jiaming
Ip, Paul S. P.
Yeung, John H. K.
Che, Chun-Tao
Publication Title: 
Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology

The consumption of moderate amounts of cocoa products has been associated with reductions in the incidence of cardiovascular diseases. In animal studies, the flavanol (-)-epicatechin (Epi) yields cardioprotection. The effects may be partly due to its capacity to stimulate endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). The sustained activation of eNOS, as observed with exercise, can serve as a trigger of muscle angiogenesis via the activation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-related events.

Author(s): 
Ramirez-Sanchez, Israel
Nogueira, Leonardo
Moreno, Aldo
Murphy, Ann
Taub, Pam
Perkins, Guy
Ceballos, Guillermo M.
Hogan, Michael
Malek, Moh
Villarreal, Francisco
Publication Title: 
Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi = Chinese Journal of Modern Developments in Traditional Medicine / Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Yan Jiu Hui (chou), Zhong Yi Yan Jiu Yuan, Zhu Ban

This paper used RIA method to observe 11 cases of prolapsed intervertebral disc patients, detect the change of cAMP and cGMP in the cerebrospinal fluid before and after finger pressing massage in acupuncture point Weizhong and Chengshan in order to discuss the mechanism of analgesia of finger pressing massage. The results showed that the pain was relieved after finger pressing massage. cAMP of the cerebrospinal fluid increased from 0.51 +/- 0.19 to 0.63 +/- 0.13 pm/ml, in average 32% higher than that before the therapy (P less than 0.05).

Author(s): 
Jiang, H.
Yang, Z.
Publication Title: 
The Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. Le Journal Canadien Des Sciences Neurologiques

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Sildenafil citrate has been shown to enhance neurogenesis, angiogenesis, synaptogenesis, and neurological outcome by augmentation of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) levels in animal models of ischemic stroke. Whether sildenafil citrate may be helpful for recovery in human stroke is unknown at this time. METHODS: A 41-year-old woman with locked-in syndrome due to pontine infarction began receiving 150 mg of oral sildenafil citrate daily on a compassionate use basis in August 2003 and continues treatment at this time.

Author(s): 
Silver, Brian
Grover, Kavita M.
Arcila, Ximena
Mitsias, Panayiotis D.
Bowyer, Susan M.
Chopp, Michael
Publication Title: 
Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao = Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine

OBJECTIVE: To study the mechanism of preventing proteinuria by traditional Chinese medicine YSGJD in early diabetic nephropathy (DN) in rats. METHODS: The male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into three groups: normal control, untreated control and treated groups. Experimental diabetes mellitus (DM) was induced in untreated control and treated rats with streptozotocin (STZ), and the normal group was given equal buffer solution. The treated rats were given YSGJD daily. The other two groups were given running water.

Author(s): 
Zhou, Xiao-Jing
Shen, Jian-Xiong
Huang, Lan

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