Cyclic N-Oxides

Publication Title: 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

Peroxidic antimalarials such as the semisynthetic artemisinins are critically important in the treatment of drug-resistant malaria. Nevertheless, their peroxide bond-dependent mode of action is still not well understood. Using combination experiments with cultured Plasmodium falciparum cells, we investigated the interactions of the nitroxide radical spin trap, 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1-piperidinyloxy (TEMPO), and four of its analogs with artemisinin and the ozonide drug development candidate OZ277.

Author(s): 
Fügi, Matthias A.
Wittlin, Sergio
Dong, Yuxiang
Vennerstrom, Jonathan L.
Publication Title: 
Cancer Treatment Reports

Indicine N-oxide is a pyrrolizidine alkaloid isolated from Heliotropium indicum, one of the widely used herbs in Ayurvedic medicine. Thirty-seven patients with solid tumors received the drug: 15 men and 22 women (mean age, 53 years). All had had prior chemotherapy, and 25 had had prior radiotherapy. Eighty-four percent had a performance status of 0-3 (Cancer and Leukemia Group B criteria). The drug was given as a short infusion over 15 minutes and repeated with a median interval of 4 weeks. Doses were escalated from 1 to 9 g/m2. A total of 55 courses were evaluable.

Author(s): 
Ohnuma, T.
Sridhar, K. S.
Ratner, L. H.
Holland, J. F.
Publication Title: 
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

The metal-independent decomposition of organic hydroperoxides and the formation of organic alkoxyl radicals in the absence or presence of halogenated quinones were studied with electron spin resonance (ESR) and the spin-trapping agent 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide (DMPO). We found that 2,5-dichloro-1,4-benzoquinone (DCBQ) markedly enhanced the decomposition of tert-butylhydroperoxide (t-BuOOH), leading to the formation of the DMPO adducts with t-butoxyl radicals (t-BuO* and methyl radicals *CH(3)).

Author(s): 
Zhu, Ben-Zhan
Zhao, Hong-Tao
Kalyanaraman, Balaraman
Liu, Jun
Shan, Guo-Qiang
Du, Yu-Guo
Frei, Balz
Publication Title: 
Pain

Previous findings that reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in neuropathic pain, mainly through spinal mechanisms, suggest that ROS may be involved in central sensitization. To investigate the possible role of ROS in central sensitization, we examined in rats the effects of ROS scavengers on capsaicin-induced secondary hyperalgesia, which is known to be mediated by central sensitization. We used two different ROS scavengers: phenyl N-tert-butylnitrone (PBN) and 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine 1-oxyl (TEMPOL).

Author(s): 
Lee, Inhyung
Kim, Hee Kee
Kim, Jae Hyo
Chung, Kyungsoon
Chung, Jin Mo
Publication Title: 
Neuroscience Letters

Scavengers of reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been shown to produce a strong antinociceptive effect on persistent pain, and mitochondria are suggested to be the main source of ROS in the spinal dorsal horn. To explore whether excessive generation of mitochondrial superoxide alone can induce pain, the effect of mitochondrial electron transport complex inhibitors on the development of mechanical hyperalgesia was examined in mice.

Author(s): 
Kim, Hee Young
Chung, Jin Mo
Chung, Kyungsoon
Publication Title: 
Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.)

The purposes of these studies were to quantify the concentrations of total nitrate and nitrite (NO(x)(-)) cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), and nitrotyrosine over skin surface in normal weight healthy volunteers (n = 64) compared to overweight/obese subjects (n = 54). A semi-circular plastic tube was taped to the skin along acupuncture points (acupoints), meridian line without acupoint (MWOP), and nonmeridian control and filled with a 2-Phenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-3-oxide-1-oxyl solution for 20 min.

Author(s): 
Ma, Sheng-Xing
Li, Xi-Yan
Smith, Brian T.
Jou, Nainn-Tsyr
Publication Title: 
Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology

In an attempt to dissect the mechanism of Strychnos nux-vomica, a commonly used Chinese folk medicine in the therapy of liver cancer, the cytotoxic effects of four alkaloids in Strychnos nux-vomica, brucine, brucine N-oxide, strychnine, and isostrychnine, on human hepatoma cells (HepG2) were screened by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrasolium bromide (MTT) assay.

Author(s): 
Deng, Xukun
Yin, Fangzhou
Lu, Xiaoyu
Cai, Baochang
Yin, Wu
Publication Title: 
Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.)

The purposes of these studies were to quantify the concentrations of total nitrate and nitrite (NO(x)(-)) cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), and nitrotyrosine over skin surface in normal weight healthy volunteers (n = 64) compared to overweight/obese subjects (n = 54). A semi-circular plastic tube was taped to the skin along acupuncture points (acupoints), meridian line without acupoint (MWOP), and nonmeridian control and filled with a 2-Phenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-3-oxide-1-oxyl solution for 20 min.

Author(s): 
Ma, Sheng-Xing
Li, Xi-Yan
Smith, Brian T.
Jou, Nainn-Tsyr
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