Terminally differentiated neutrophils are short-lived but the key effector cells of the innate immune response, and have a prominent role in the pathogenesis and propagation of many inflammatory diseases. Delayed apoptosis, which is responsible for their extended longevity, is critically dependent on a balance of intracellular survival versus pro-apoptotic proteins. Here, we elucidate the mechanism by which the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor drugs such as R-roscovitine and DRB (5,6-dichloro-1-beta-D-ribofuranosylbenzimidazole) mediate neutrophil apoptosis.
HIV-1 transcription is activated by HIV-1 Tat protein, which recruits cyclin-dependent kinase 9 (CDK9)/cyclin T1 and other host transcriptional coactivators to the HIV-1 promoter. Tat itself is phosphorylated by CDK2, and inhibition of CDK2 by small interfering RNA, the iron chelator 2-hydroxy-1-naphthylaldehyde isonicotinoyl hydrazone (311), and the iron chelator deferasirox (ICL670) inhibits HIV-1 transcription.
The wogonin-containing herb Scutellaria baicalensis has successfully been used for curing various diseases in traditional Chinese medicine. Wogonin has been shown to induce apoptosis in different cancer cells and to suppress growth of human cancer xenografts in vivo. However, its direct targets remain unknown.