Cyclooxygenase 1

Publication Title: 
Protein and Peptide Letters

Triphala is an Ayurvedic herbal formulation consisting of equal parts of three myrobalans: Terminalia chebula, Terminalia bellerica and Emblica officinalis. We recently reported that chebulagic acid (CA) isolated from Terminalia chebula is a potent COX-2/5-LOX dual inhibitor. In this study, compounds isolated from Terminalia bellerica were tested for inhibition against COX and 5-LOX. One of the fractionated compounds showed potent inhibition against COX enzymes with no inhibition against 5-LOX. It was identified as gallic acid (GA) by LC-MS, NMR and IR analyses.

Author(s): 
Reddy, Tamatam Chandramohan
Aparoy, Polamarasetty
Babu, Neela Kishore
Kumar, Kotha Anil
Kalangi, Suresh Kumar
Reddanna, Pallu
Publication Title: 
BMC complementary and alternative medicine

BACKGROUND: Egyptians recognized the healing power of herbs and used them in their medicinal formulations. Nowadays, "Attarin" drug shops and the public use mainly the Unani medicinal system for treatment of their health problems including improvement of memory and old age related diseases. Numerous medicinal plants have been described in old literature of Arabic traditional medicine for treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) (or to strengthen memory).

Author(s): 
Ali, Shereen K.
Hamed, Ahmed R.
Soltan, Maha M.
Hegazy, Usama M.
Elgorashi, Esameldin E.
El-Garf, Ibrahim A.
Hussein, Ahmed A.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Ethnopharmacology

AIM OF THIS STUDY: Cardiospermum halicacabum L. is well known for its anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities. It has been used in Ayurveda and folk medicine for the treatment of rheumatism, fever and earache. But its mechanism of anti-inflammatory and analgesic action is still unclear, hence in this context, the objective of our study is to reveal the mechanism of anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of Cardiospermum halicacabum L. which would form an additional proof to the traditional knowledge of Cardiospermum halicacabum L.

Author(s): 
Sheeba, M. S.
Asha, V. V.
Publication Title: 
Protein and Peptide Letters

Triphala is an Ayurvedic herbal formulation consisting of equal parts of three myrobalans: Terminalia chebula, Terminalia bellerica and Emblica officinalis. We recently reported that chebulagic acid (CA) isolated from Terminalia chebula is a potent COX-2/5-LOX dual inhibitor. In this study, compounds isolated from Terminalia bellerica were tested for inhibition against COX and 5-LOX. One of the fractionated compounds showed potent inhibition against COX enzymes with no inhibition against 5-LOX. It was identified as gallic acid (GA) by LC-MS, NMR and IR analyses.

Author(s): 
Reddy, Tamatam Chandramohan
Aparoy, Polamarasetty
Babu, Neela Kishore
Kumar, Kotha Anil
Kalangi, Suresh Kumar
Reddanna, Pallu
Publication Title: 
Journal of Ethnopharmacology

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Cissus quadrangularis is an ancient medicinal plant. It is an active ingredient of one Ayurvedic formula called "Laksha Gogglu". Its stem is used in food preparation in India. Traditionally it is used to treat various diseases like asthma, indigestion, ear diseases, irregular menstruation, skin diseases, piles, fractured bones, etc. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study aimed to evaluate the ability of the plant extracts to inhibit cycloxygenase (COX-1), cycloxygenase (COX-2), and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) enzyme activity.

Author(s): 
Bhujade, Arti M.
Talmale, Suhas
Kumar, Naresh
Gupta, Geetika
Reddanna, P.
Das, Samar K.
Patil, M. B.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Immunology (Baltimore, Md.: 1950)

Glucosamine represents one of the most commonly used drugs to treat osteoarthritis. However, mechanisms of its antiarthritic activities are still poorly understood. The present study identifies a novel mechanism of glucosamine-mediated anti-inflammatory activity. It is shown that both glucosamine and N-acetylglucosamine inhibit IL-1beta- and TNF-alpha-induced NO production in normal human articular chondrocytes.

Author(s): 
Shikhman, A. R.
Kuhn, K.
Alaaeddine, N.
Lotz, M.
Publication Title: 
Pharmacological Research: The Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society

Eleven authenticated botanicals used in the traditional Chinese medicine Huo-Luo-Xiao-Ling Dan were screened for ligands to cyclooxygenase (COX) using pulsed ultrafiltration liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, and a mass spectrometry-based enzyme assay was used to determine the concentration of each of 17 ligands that inhibited COX-1 or COX-2 by 50% (IC(50)). Acetyl-11-keto-beta-boswellic acid, beta-boswellic acid, acetyl-alpha-boswellic acid, acetyl-beta-boswellic acid, and betulinic acid were COX-1 selective inhibitors with IC(50) values of approximately 10 microM.

Author(s): 
Cao, Hongmei
Yu, Rui
Choi, Yongsoo
Ma, Zhong-Ze
Zhang, Hongjie
Xiang, Wei
Lee, David Yue-Wei
Berman, Brian M.
Moudgil, Kamal D.
Fong, Harry H. S.
van Breemen, Richard B.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis

Because cyclooxygenases (COX) convert arachidonic acid into pro-inflammatory cyclic endoperoxides, inhibition of these enzymes and especially the inducible COX-2 form is an important therapeutic approach to manage inflammatory diseases and possibly prevent cancer. Due to side effects of existing non-selective and COX-2 selective non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents, the discovery of new COX inhibitors continues to be an area of active investigation.

Author(s): 
Cao, Hongmei
Yu, Rui
Tao, Yi
Nikolic, Dejan
van Breemen, Richard B.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Alzheimer's disease: JAD

Alzheimer's disease (AD) causes progressive, age-dependent cortical and hippocampal dysfunction leading to abnormal intellectual capacity and memory. We propose a novel protective treatment for AD pathology with phytic acid (inositol hexakisphosphate), a phytochemical found in food grains and a key signaling molecule in mammalian cells. We evaluated the protective and beneficial effects of phytic acid against amyloid-β (Aβ) pathology in MC65 cells and the Tg2576 mouse model.

Author(s): 
Anekonda, Thimmappa S.
Wadsworth, Teri L.
Sabin, Robert
Frahler, Kate
Harris, Christopher
Petriko, Babett
Ralle, Martina
Woltjer, Randy
Quinn, Joseph F.
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics

Prostaglandins (PGs) are a family of cellular messengers exerting diverse homeostatic and pathophysiologic effects. Recently, several studies reported significant increases of PGI(2) and PGF(2α) after the inhibition of microsomal PGE synthase-1 (mPGES-1) expression, which indicated that PGH(2) metabolism might be redistributed when the PGE(2) pathway is blocked.

Author(s): 
Yu, Rui
Xiao, Lei
Zhao, Guiqing
Christman, John W.
van Breemen, Richard B.

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