Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors

Publication Title: 
The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews

BACKGROUND: Low-back pain is a common condition and a substantial economic burden in industrialized societies. A large proportion of patients with chronic low-back pain use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), visit CAM practitioners, or both. Several herbal medicines have been purported for use in low-back pain. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effectiveness of herbal medicine for non-specific low-back pain.

Author(s): 
Gagnier, J. J.
van Tulder, M.
Berman, B.
Bombardier, C.
Publication Title: 
Pain Medicine (Malden, Mass.)

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine which analgesic modalities used following discharge have the greatest efficacy in reducing postoperative pain after elective non-axial orthopedic surgery. DESIGN AND SETTING: A systematic review was conducted using the databases CENTRAL, MEDLINE, and EMBASE, as well as clinical practice guidelines databases and trial registries. Titles and abstracts were perused by two reviewers for randomized clinical trials in English fulfilling inclusion and exclusion criteria.

Author(s): 
Roberts, Matthew
Brodribb, Wendy
Mitchell, Geoffrey
Publication Title: 
The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews

BACKGROUND: Low-back pain (LBP) is a common condition and imposes a substantial economic burden upon people living in industrialized societies. A large proportion of people with chronic LBP use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), visit CAM practitioners, or both. Several herbal medicines have been purported for use in treating people with LBP. This is an update of a Cochrane Review first published in 2006. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effectiveness of herbal medicine for non-specific LBP.

Author(s): 
Oltean, Hanna
Robbins, Chris
van Tulder, Maurits W.
Berman, Brian M.
Bombardier, Claire
Gagnier, Joel J.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Pain and Symptom Management

The American College of Rheumatology (ACR) recently provided an update to the guidelines published in 1995 on the management of osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee and hip. Members of the Ad Hoc Committee on OA Guidelines followed an evidence-based medicine approach to revise the guidelines by reviewing an extensive literature search of the Cochrane and Medline databases and published abstracts, and discussing evidence with expert rheumatologists.

Author(s): 
Schnitzer, Thomas J.
American College of Rheumatology
Publication Title: 
Journal of Ethnopharmacology

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Terminalia chebula has an esteemed origin in Indian mythology; its fruits are used to treat many diseases such as digestive, diabetes, colic pain, chronic cough, sore throat, asthma, etc. AIM OF THE STUDY: The water or ethanolic extracts of the fruits were reported to have anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer and radio-protector properties. The present study is to isolate and identify the compounds that inhibit COX and 5-LOX, the key enzymes involved in inflammation and carcinogenesis.

Author(s): 
Reddy, D. Bharat
Reddy, T. C. M.
Jyotsna, G.
Sharan, Satish
Priya, Nalini
Lakshmipathi, V.
Reddanna, Pallu
Publication Title: 
Protein and Peptide Letters

Triphala is an Ayurvedic herbal formulation consisting of equal parts of three myrobalans: Terminalia chebula, Terminalia bellerica and Emblica officinalis. We recently reported that chebulagic acid (CA) isolated from Terminalia chebula is a potent COX-2/5-LOX dual inhibitor. In this study, compounds isolated from Terminalia bellerica were tested for inhibition against COX and 5-LOX. One of the fractionated compounds showed potent inhibition against COX enzymes with no inhibition against 5-LOX. It was identified as gallic acid (GA) by LC-MS, NMR and IR analyses.

Author(s): 
Reddy, Tamatam Chandramohan
Aparoy, Polamarasetty
Babu, Neela Kishore
Kumar, Kotha Anil
Kalangi, Suresh Kumar
Reddanna, Pallu
Publication Title: 
Medicinal Chemistry (Shariqah (United Arab Emirates))

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) specific inhibitors are anti-inflammatory agents that have also shown to be useful in anticancer therapy. The effects of chebulagic acid (CA), a benzopyran tannin from Terminalia chebula having COX-2/5-LOX dual inhibitory properties, on the sensitivity of doxorubicin (Dox) in human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2 were studied in the present investigation. CA increased the accumulation of Dox in a concentration dependant manner and also enhanced the cytotoxicity of Dox in HepG2 cells by 20 folds.

Author(s): 
Achari, Chandrani
Reddy, Gorla V.
Reddy, T. C. M.
Reddanna, Pallu
Publication Title: 
Carcinogenesis

Guggulsterone (GUG), a resin of the Commiphora mukul tree, has been used in ayurvedic medicine for centuries to treat a variety of ailments. Recent studies have suggested that GUG may also possess anticancer effects. In the present study, we show that GUG possesses antitumor-promoting effects in SENCAR mouse skin tumorigenesis model. We first determined the effect of topical application of GUG to mice against 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced conventional markers and other novel markers of skin tumor promotion.

Author(s): 
Sarfaraz, Sami
Siddiqui, Imtiaz A.
Syed, Deeba N.
Afaq, Farrukh
Mukhtar, Hasan
Publication Title: 
Carcinogenesis

Guggulsterone (GUG), a resin of the Commiphora mukul tree, has been used in ayurvedic medicine for centuries to treat a variety of ailments. Recent studies have suggested that GUG may also possess anticancer effects. In the present study, we show that GUG possesses antitumor-promoting effects in SENCAR mouse skin tumorigenesis model. We first determined the effect of topical application of GUG to mice against 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced conventional markers and other novel markers of skin tumor promotion.

Author(s): 
Sarfaraz, Sami
Siddiqui, Imtiaz A.
Syed, Deeba N.
Afaq, Farrukh
Mukhtar, Hasan
Publication Title: 
Methods and Findings in Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology

Curcumin is a yellow-colored plant polyphenol with a long history of medicinal use in ayurvedic, Chinese and Japanese medicine. Studies have reported the cyclooxygenase COX-2-inhibitory activity of this polyphenol; however, none of the studies have established its antiinflammatory activity in the rat cotton pellet granuloma pouch model, which mimics subchronic inflammation in humans. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of curcumin in the cotton pellet granuloma pouch model.

Author(s): 
Nandal, Shivender
Dhir, Ashish
Kuhad, Anurag
Sharma, Sameer
Chopra, Kanwaljit

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