The American College of Rheumatology (ACR) recently provided an update to the guidelines published in 1995 on the management of osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee and hip. Members of the Ad Hoc Committee on OA Guidelines followed an evidence-based medicine approach to revise the guidelines by reviewing an extensive literature search of the Cochrane and Medline databases and published abstracts, and discussing evidence with expert rheumatologists.
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Terminalia chebula has an esteemed origin in Indian mythology; its fruits are used to treat many diseases such as digestive, diabetes, colic pain, chronic cough, sore throat, asthma, etc. AIM OF THE STUDY: The water or ethanolic extracts of the fruits were reported to have anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer and radio-protector properties. The present study is to isolate and identify the compounds that inhibit COX and 5-LOX, the key enzymes involved in inflammation and carcinogenesis.
Pretreatment of mice with prostaglandin synthetase inhibitors (PGSI's) antagonizes alcohol-induced behaviors. This study examined genetic and time course factors of this effect and studied the effects of a putative prostaglandin antagonist (SC-19220) on ethanol sleep time. Long Sleep (LS) and Short Sleep (SS) mice, lines bred for differential response to an hypnotic dose of ethanol, showed a four-fold difference in their dose-response curves for indomethacin antagonism of ethanol-induced hypnosis. Females of both lines required higher amounts of indomethacin relative to males.
Over 60% of surgery is now performed in an ambulatory setting. Despite improved analgesics and sophisticated drug delivery systems, surveys indicate that over 80% of patients experience moderate to severe pain postoperatively. Inadequate postoperative pain relief can prolong recovery, precipitate or increase the duration of hospital stay, increase healthcare costs, and reduce patient satisfaction. Effective postoperative pain management involves a multimodal approach and the use of various drugs with different mechanisms of action.
Oxygenation of arachidonic acid is increased in inflamed tissues. In this condition products of two enzymic pathways--the cyclooxygenase and the 5-lipoxygenase producing respectively prostaglandins and leukotrienes--are elevated. Of the cyclooxygenase products, PGE2 and of the lipoxygenase products, LTB4 are the strongest candidates for mediating inflammation. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs which inhibit the cyclooxygenase, and corticosteroids are used to treat such disorders. Both types of drugs produce adverse side-effects on prolonged use.
A new dimeric withanolide, ashwagandhanolide (1), was isolated from the roots of an Ayurvedic medicinal herb, Withania somnifera. A detailed spectroscopic evaluation revealed its identity as a dimer with an unusual thioether linkage. Compound 1 displayed growth inhibition against human gastric (AGS), breast (MCF-7), central nervous system (SF-268), colon (HCT-116), and lung (NCI H460) cancer cell lines, with IC50 values in the range 0.43-1.48 microg/mL. In addition, it inhibited lipid peroxidation and the activity of the enzyme cyclooxygenase-2 in vitro.
Methods and Findings in Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology
Curcumin is a yellow-colored plant polyphenol with a long history of medicinal use in ayurvedic, Chinese and Japanese medicine. Studies have reported the cyclooxygenase COX-2-inhibitory activity of this polyphenol; however, none of the studies have established its antiinflammatory activity in the rat cotton pellet granuloma pouch model, which mimics subchronic inflammation in humans. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of curcumin in the cotton pellet granuloma pouch model.
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Ajuga bracteosa Wall Ex Benth. (Labiateae) is described in Ayurveda for the treatment of rheumatism, gout, palsy and amenorrhea. AIM OF THE STUDY: The aim of present investigation is to study anti-inflammatory activity of Ajuga bracteosa, to understand possible mechanism of action and to identify the constituents responsible for its activity.
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Cissus quadrangularis is an ancient medicinal plant. It is an active ingredient of one Ayurvedic formula called "Laksha Gogglu". Its stem is used in food preparation in India. Traditionally it is used to treat various diseases like asthma, indigestion, ear diseases, irregular menstruation, skin diseases, piles, fractured bones, etc. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study aimed to evaluate the ability of the plant extracts to inhibit cycloxygenase (COX-1), cycloxygenase (COX-2), and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) enzyme activity.