Cysteine

Publication Title: 
Nature Chemical Biology

Cellular damage invoked by reactive oxygen species plays a key role in the pathobiology of cancer and aging. Forkhead box class O (FoxO) transcription factors are involved in various cellular processes including cell cycle regulation, apoptosis and resistance to reactive oxygen species, and studies in animal models have shown that these transcription factors are of vital importance in tumor suppression, stem cell maintenance and lifespan extension.

Author(s): 
Dansen, Tobias B.
Smits, Lydia M. M.
van Triest, Miranda H.
de Keizer, Peter L. J.
van Leenen, Dik
Koerkamp, Marian Groot
Szypowska, Anna
Meppelink, Amanda
Brenkman, Arjan B.
Yodoi, Junji
Holstege, Frank C. P.
Burgering, Boudewijn M. T.
Publication Title: 
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling

SIGNIFICANCE: Redox biology is a rapidly developing area of research due to the recent evidence for general importance of redox control for numerous cellular functions under both physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Understanding of redox homeostasis is particularly relevant to the understanding of the aging process. The link between reactive oxygen species (ROS) and accumulation of age-associated oxidative damage to macromolecules is well established, but remains controversial and applies only to a subset of experimental models.

Author(s): 
Labunskyy, Vyacheslav M.
Gladyshev, Vadim N.
Publication Title: 
Neuromolecular Medicine

A common cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is mutations in superoxide dismutase-1, which provoke the disease by an unknown mechanism. We have previously found that soluble hydrophobic misfolded mutant human superoxide dismutase-1 species are enriched in the vulnerable spinal cords of transgenic model mice. The levels were broadly inversely correlated with life spans, suggesting involvement in the pathogenesis.

Author(s): 
Zetterstrˆm, Per
Graffmo, Karin S.
Andersen, Peter M.
Br‰nnstrˆm, Thomas
Marklund, Stefan L.
Publication Title: 
Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics

Thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (TC) is a cyclic sulfur amino acid, a condensation product of cysteine and formaldehyde. The chemistry, biological effects and clinical use of TC are reviewed. Extensive animal experiments and studies on human subjects carried out in Europe indicate that a combination of TC and folic acid, 'Folcysteine', has revitalizing effects on age-related biochemical variables of blood and tissues. Further animal studies confirmed the anti-toxic effects of TC, particularly on the liver.

Author(s): 
Weber, H. U.
Fleming, J. F.
Miquel, J.
Publication Title: 
The Korean Journal of Parasitology

A cDNA of 1.1 kb comprising the gene encoding the peroxiredoxin of Toxoplasma gondii (TgPrx) has been cloned. The open reading frame of 591 bp was translated into a protein of 196 amino acids with a molecular mass of 25 kDa. Conserved 2 cysteine domains of Phe-Val-Cys-Pro and Glu-Val-Cys-Pro indicated TgPrx belonged to 2-Cys Prx families. TgPrx showed the highest homology with that of Arabidopsis thaliana by 53.9% followed by Entamoeba histolytica with 39.5% by the amino acid sequence alignment. Polyclonal antibody against recombinant TgPrx detected 25 kDa band in T.

Author(s): 
Son, E. S.
Song, K. J.
Shin, J. C.
Nam, H. W.
Publication Title: 
Cancer Research

Berberine, an isoquinoline alkaloid derived from a plant used traditionally in Chinese and Ayurvedic medicine, has been reported to exhibit chemopreventive and anti-inflammatory activities through unknown mechanism. Because of the critical role of the transcription factor nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) in these processes, we investigated the effect of berberine on this pathway. We found that berberine suppressed NF-kappaB activation induced by various inflammatory agents and carcinogens. This alkaloid also suppressed constitutive NF-kappaB activation found in certain tumor cells.

Author(s): 
Pandey, Manoj K.
Sung, Bokyung
Kunnumakkara, Ajaikumar B.
Sethi, Gautam
Chaturvedi, Madan M.
Aggarwal, Bharat B.
Publication Title: 
Cancer Research

Berberine, an isoquinoline alkaloid derived from a plant used traditionally in Chinese and Ayurvedic medicine, has been reported to exhibit chemopreventive and anti-inflammatory activities through unknown mechanism. Because of the critical role of the transcription factor nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) in these processes, we investigated the effect of berberine on this pathway. We found that berberine suppressed NF-kappaB activation induced by various inflammatory agents and carcinogens. This alkaloid also suppressed constitutive NF-kappaB activation found in certain tumor cells.

Author(s): 
Pandey, Manoj K.
Sung, Bokyung
Kunnumakkara, Ajaikumar B.
Sethi, Gautam
Chaturvedi, Madan M.
Aggarwal, Bharat B.
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Biological Chemistry

Soluble, truncated mutant and wild-type forms of penicillin-binding protein 5 (sPBP 5) from Escherichia coli were produced in large amounts by placing the dacA gene that encodes PBP 5 under the control of the trp-lac fusion promoter. The 3' end of the dacA gene used in this study contains a stop codon that results in the deletion of 15 amino acids from the carboxyl terminus and the production of a soluble protein. Using oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis, the role of cysteine 115 in the mechanism of sPBP 5 was investigated.

Author(s): 
Nicholas, R. A.
Strominger, J. L.
Publication Title: 
Translational Research: The Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine

Oxidant-mediated injury plays an important role in the pathophysiology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Recently, antioxidants were shown to modulate colitis in mice. In this study, the protective effects of L-cysteine and glutathione (GSH) prodrugs are further evaluated against progression of colitis in a murine model. ICR mice were fed compounds incorporated into chow as follows: Group (A) received chow supplemented with vehicle. Group (B) was provided 2-(RS)-n-propylthiazolidine-4(R)-carboxylic-acid (PTCA), a cysteine prodrug.

Author(s): 
Oz, Helieh S.
Chen, Theresa S.
Nagasawa, Herbert
Publication Title: 
Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry

Under basal conditions, the interaction of the cytosolic protein Keap1 (Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1) with the transcription factor nuclear factor-E(2)-related factor 2 (Nrf2) results in a low level of expression of cytoprotective genes whose promoter region contains the antioxidant response element (ARE). Alkylation of one or more of the 27 cysteine sulfhydryl groups of human Keap1 is proposed to lead to Nrf2 nuclear accumulation, to upregulation of cytoprotective gene expression by the ARE, and to prevention of degenerative diseases, such as cancer.

Author(s): 
Luo, Yan
Eggler, Aimee L.
Liu, Dongting
Liu, Guowen
Mesecar, Andrew D.
van Breemen, Richard B.

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