Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors

Publication Title: 
Journal of Biomedical Science

BACKGROUND: Dihydroartemisinin (DHA), a semi-synthetic derivative of artemisinin, isolated from the traditional Chinese herb Artemisia annua, is recommended as the first-line anti-malarial drug with low toxicity. DHA has been shown to possess promising anticancer activities and induce cancer cell death through apoptotic pathways, although the molecular mechanisms are not well understood. METHODS: In this study, cell counting kit (CCK-8) assay was employed to evaluate the survival of DHA-treated ASTC-a-1 cells.

Lu, Ying-Ying
Chen, Tong-Sheng
Qu, Jun-Le
Pan, Wen-Liang
Sun, Lei
Wei, Xun-Bin
Publication Title: 
Breast Cancer Research and Treatment

25-Hydroxy-3-oxoolean-12-en-28-oic acid (Amooranin-AMR) is a triterpene acid isolated from the stem bark of a tropical tree (Amoora rohituka) grown wild in India. A herbal preparation used for the treatment of cancer by the Ayurvedic system of medicine contains the stem bark of Amoora rohituka as one of the ingredients. In this paper, we show that AMR displays a strong inhibitory effect on survival of human breast carcinoma MDA-468, breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 cells compared to breast epithelial MCF-10A control cells.

Rabi, Thangaiyan
Wang, Liming
Banerjee, Sipra
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Neuroscience: The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience

Huntington's disease (HD) results from polyglutamine expansion in huntingtin (htt), a protein with several consensus caspase cleavage sites. Despite the identification of htt fragments in the brain, it has not been shown conclusively that htt is cleaved by caspases in vivo. Furthermore, no study has addressed when htt cleavage occurs with respect to the onset of neurodegeneration. Using antibodies that detect only caspase-cleaved htt, we demonstrate that htt is cleaved in vivo specifically at the caspase consensus site at amino acid 552.

Wellington, Cheryl L.
Ellerby, Lisa M.
Gutekunst, Claire-Anne
Rogers, Danny
Warby, Simon
Graham, Rona K.
Loubser, Odell
van Raamsdonk, Jeremy
Singaraja, Roshni
Yang, Yu-Zhou
Gafni, Juliette
Bredesen, Dale
Hersch, Steven M.
Leavitt, Blair R.
Roy, Sophie
Nicholson, Donald W.
Hayden, Michael R.
Publication Title: 
Biochemical Society Transactions

MS, with or without pre-analysis peptide fractionation, can be used to decipher the residues on proteins where oxidative modifications caused by peroxynitrite, singlet oxygen or electrophilic lipids have occurred. Peroxynitrite nitrates tyrosine and tryptophan residues on the surface of actin. Singlet oxygen, formed by the interaction of UVA light with tryptophan, can oxidize neighbouring cysteine, histidine, methionine, tyrosine and tryptophan residues.

Barnes, Stephen
Shonsey, Erin M.
Eliuk, Shannon M.
Stella, David
Barrett, Kerri
Srivastava, Om P.
Kim, Helen
Renfrow, Matthew B.
Publication Title: 
Experimental Cell Research

The ceramide synthase (CerS) enzymes are key regulators of ceramide homeostasis. CerS1 is central to regulating C18 ceramide which has been shown to be important in cancer and the response to chemotherapeutic drugs. Previous work indicated that some drugs induced a novel and specific translocation of CerS1 from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi apparatus. We now show that diverse stresses such as UV light, DTT, as well as drugs with different mechanisms of action induce CerS1 translocation.

Sridevi, Priya
Alexander, Hannah
Laviad, Elad L.
Min, Junxia
Mesika, Adi
Hannink, Mark
Futerman, Anthony H.
Alexander, Stephen
Publication Title: 
Arthritis and Rheumatism

OBJECTIVE: Aberrant posttranscriptional regulation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) by microRNA has emerged as an important factor in human diseases. The aim of this study was to determine whether the expression of MMP-13 in human osteoarthritis (OA) chondrocytes is regulated by microRNA. METHODS: Chondrocytes were stimulated with interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) in vitro. Total RNA was prepared using TRIzol reagent. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based arrays were used to determine the expression profile of 352 human microRNA.

Akhtar, Nahid
Rasheed, Zafar
Ramamurthy, Sangeetha
Anbazhagan, Arivarasu N.
Voss, Frank R.
Haqqi, Tariq M.
Publication Title: 
Cancer Letters

Ginsenosides are the main bioactive components in American ginseng, a commonly used herb. In this study, we showed that the ginsenoside Rh2 exhibited significantly more potent cell death activity than the ginsenoside Rg3 in HCT116 and SW480 colorectal cancer cells. Cell death induced by Rh2 is mediated in part by the caspase-dependent apoptosis and in part by the caspase-independent paraptosis, a type of cell death that is characterized by the accumulation of cytoplasmic vacuoles.

Li, Binghui
Zhao, Jiong
Wang, Chong-Zhi
Searle, Jennifer
He, Tong-Chuan
Yuan, Chun-Su
Du, Wei
Publication Title: 
Acta Pharmacologica Sinica

AIM: Gambogic acid (GA) is the major active ingredient of gamboge, which is secreted from a Chinese traditional medicine, Garcinia hanburyi, which possesses potent antitumor activity. GA3, a new GA derivative, has been shown to possess better water solubility than GA. The aim of the present study was to examine the antitumor activity of GA3 and the mechanism underlying it. METHODS: The growth inhibition of cancer cell lines induced by GA3 was assessed using the SRB assay.

Xie, Hua
Qin, Yu-xin
Zhou, Yun-long
Tong, Lin-Jiang
Lin, Li-ping
Geng, Mei-yu
Duan, Wen-hu
Ding, Jian
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