Cytokines

Publication Title: 
FEBS letters

Sir2 mediates lifespan extension in lower eukaryotes but whether its mammalian homolog, sirtuin 1, silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog (SIRT1), is a longevity protein is controversial. We stably introduced the SIRT1 gene into human vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and observed minimal extension of replicative lifespan. However, SIRT1 activity was found to be exquisitely dependent on nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (Nampt) activity.

Author(s): 
Ho, Cynthia
van der Veer, Eric
Akawi, Oula
Pickering, J. Geoffrey
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Surgical Research

BACKGROUND: Lifespan extension is achieved through long-term application of dietary restriction (DR), and benefits of short-term dietary restriction on acute stress and inflammation have been observed. So far, the effects of short-term DR in humans are relatively unknown. We hypothesized that short-term DR in humans reduces the acute phase response following a well defined surgical trauma. METHODS: Thirty live kidney donors were randomized between 30% preoperative dietary restriction followed by 1 d of fasting (n=17) or a 4 d ad libitum regimen (n=13) prior to surgery.

Author(s): 
van Ginhoven, Tessa M.
Dik, Willem A.
Mitchell, James R.
Smits-te Nijenhuis, Marja A.
van Holten-Neelen, Conny
Hooijkaas, Herbert
Hoeijmakers, Jan H. J.
de Bruin, Ron W. F.
IJzermans, Jan N. M.
Publication Title: 
PloS One

Exceptional aging has been defined as maintenance of physical and cognitive function beyond the median lifespan despite a history of diseases and/or concurrent subclinical conditions. Since immunity is vital to individual fitness, we examined immunologic fingerprint(s) of highly functional elders. Therefore, survivors of the Cardiovascular Health Study in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA were recruited (n?=?140; mean age?=?86 years) and underwent performance testing. Blood samples were collected and examined blindly for humoral factors and T cell phenotypes.

Author(s): 
Vallejo, Abbe N.
Hamel, David L.
Mueller, Robert G.
Ives, Diane G.
Michel, Joshua J.
Boudreau, Robert M.
Newman, Anne B.
Publication Title: 
Age (Dordrecht, Netherlands)

The B cell arm of adaptive immunity undergoes significant modifications with age. Elderly people are characterized by impaired B cell responses reflected in a reduced ability to effectively respond against viruses and bacteria. Alterations of immunity with advancing age (immunosenescence) have been widely studied in centenarians who are considered a good example of successful aging. In recent years, attention has shifted to centenarian offspring (CO) as a model of people genetically advantaged for healthy aging and longevity.

Author(s): 
Buffa, Silvio
PellicanÚ, Mariavaleria
Bulati, Matteo
Martorana, Adriana
Goldeck, David
Caruso, Calogero
Pawelec, Graham
Colonna-Romano, Giuseppina
Publication Title: 
Critical Reviews in Immunology

The purpose of immunology is simple. Cure or prevent disease. M1/M2 is useful because it is simple. M1/M2 describes the two major and opposing activities of macrophages. M1 activity inhibits cell proliferation and causes tissue damage while M2 activity promotes cell proliferation and tissue repair. Remarkably, the molecules primarily responsible for these "Fight" (NO) or "Fix" (Ornithine) activities both arise from arginine, and via enzymatic pathways (iNOS and arginase) that down regulate each other.

Author(s): 
Mills, Charles D.
Publication Title: 
Lupus

B cells are critical players in the orchestration of properly regulated immune responses, normally providing protective immunity without autoimmunity. Balance in the B cell compartment is achieved through the finely regulated participation of multiple B cell populations with different antibody-dependent and independent functions. Both types of functions allow B cells to modulate other components of the innate and adaptive immune system. Autoantibody-independent B cell functions include antigen presentation, T cell activation and polarization, and dendritic cell modulation.

Author(s): 
Anolik, J. H.
Publication Title: 
The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

Dengue virus (DENV) is considered to be the most important arthropod-borne viral disease and causes more than 100 million human infections annually. To further characterize primary DENV infection in vivo, rhesus macaques were infected with DENV-1, DENV-2, DENV-3, or DENV-4 and clinical parameters, as well as specificity and longevity of serologic responses, were assessed. Overt clinical symptoms were not present after infection.

Author(s): 
Hickey, Andrew C.
Koster, Jacob A.
Thalmann, Claudia M.
Hardcastle, Kathy
Tio, Phaik-Hooi
Cardosa, Mary J.
Bossart, Katharine N.
Publication Title: 
Aging

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression by targeting specific mRNAs. Altered expression of circulating miRNAs have been associated with age-related diseases including cancer and cardiovascular disease. Although we and others have found an age-dependent decrease in miRNA expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), little is known about the role of circulating miRNAs in human aging.

Author(s): 
Noren Hooten, Nicole
Fitzpatrick, Megan
Wood, William H.
De, Supriyo
Ejiogu, Ngozi
Zhang, Yongqing
Mattison, Julie A.
Becker, Kevin G.
Zonderman, Alan B.
Evans, Michele K.
Publication Title: 
Mechanisms of Ageing and Development

The diet known as calorie restriction (CR) is the most reproducible way to extend the lifespan of mammals. Many of the early hypotheses to explain this effect were based on it being a passive alteration in metabolism. Yet, recent data from yeast, worms, flies, and mammals support the idea that CR is not simply a passive effect but an active, highly conserved stress response that evolved early in life's history to increase an organism's chance of surviving adversity.

Author(s): 
Sinclair, David A.
Publication Title: 
Minerva Pediatrica

In 1929 Burr and Burr discovered the essential fatty acids omega-6 and omega-3. Since then, researchers have shown a growing interest in unsaturated essential fatty acids as they form the framework for the organism's cell membranes, particularly the neurones in the brain, are involved in the energy-transformation process, regulate the information flows between cells.

Author(s): 
Caramia, G.

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