Cytosol

Publication Title: 
Systematic and Applied Microbiology

Five Gram-negative, rod-shaped, non-spore-forming bacteria were isolated from galls on different plant species in Hungary: strain 39/7(T) from Prunus cerasifera Myrobalan, strain 0 from grapevine var. Ezerjó, strain 7/1 from raspberry var. Findus and in Poland, strain C3.4.1 from Colt rootstock (Prunus avium × Prunus pseudocerasus) and strain CP17.2.2 from Prunus avium. Only one of these isolates, strain 0, is able to cause crown gall on different plant species.

Author(s): 
Pu?awska, Joanna
Willems, Anne
De Meyer, Sofie E.
Süle, Sandor
Publication Title: 
Journal of Ethnopharmacology

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. Bark. (EUE), has commonly been used to fortify the muscles and lungs, lower blood pressure, prevent miscarriage, improve the tone of liver and kidneys, and promote longevity the traditional tonic medicines of Korea, China, and Japan. AIM OF THE STUDY: In this study, we investigated that the neuroprotective activities and possible mechanisms of EUE aqueous extract in hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2))-induced neuronal cell death in human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells.

Author(s): 
Kwon, Seung-Hwan
Kim, Min-Jung
Ma, Shi-Xun
You, In-Jee
Hwang, Ji-Young
Oh, Ji-Hwan
Kim, Sun-Yeou
Kim, Hyoung-Chun
Lee, Seok-Yong
Jang, Choon-Gon
Publication Title: 
Biophysical Journal

In contrast with most inhalational anesthetics, the anesthetic gases xenon (Xe) and nitrous oxide (N(2)O) act by blocking the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor. Using x-ray crystallography, we examined the binding characteristics of these two gases on two soluble proteins as structural models: urate oxidase, which is a prototype of a variety of intracellular globular proteins, and annexin V, which has structural and functional characteristics that allow it to be considered as a prototype for the NMDA receptor. The structure of these proteins complexed with Xe and N(2)O were determined.

Author(s): 
Colloc'h, Nathalie
Sopkova-de Oliveira Santos, Jana
Retailleau, Pascal
Vivarès, Denis
Bonneté, Françoise
Langlois d'Estainto, Béatrice
Gallois, Bernard
Brisson, Alain
Risso, Jean-Jacques
Lemaire, Marc
Prangé, Thierry
Abraini, Jacques H.
Publication Title: 
Biochemical Pharmacology

Artemisinin loses its antimalarial activity on prolonged exposure to erythrocytes, especially alpha-thalassemic erythrocytes. In this report, we show that the major artemisinin-inactivating factor in cytosol of normal erythrocytes was heat-labile but a heat-stable factor from alpha-thalassemic cells also played a significant role in reducing artemisinin effectiveness, which was shown to be heme released from hemoglobin (Hb).

Author(s): 
Ponmee, Napawan
Chuchue, Tatsanee
Wilairat, Prapon
Yuthavong, Yongyuth
Kamchonwongpaisan, Sumalee
Publication Title: 
American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology

Bromelain (Br), a proteolytic enzyme extracted from the stem of the pineapple, is known to possess anti-inflammatory activity and has been shown to reduce blood viscosity, prevent the aggregation of blood platelets, and improve ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury in a skeletal muscle model. We investigated the capacity of Br to limit myocardial injury in a global I/R model. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into two groups: control (PBS) and Br at 10 mg/kg in PBS administered via intraperitoneal injection (twice/day) for 15 consecutive days.

Author(s): 
Juhasz, Bela
Thirunavukkarasu, Mahesh
Pant, Rima
Zhan, Lijun
Penumathsa, Suresh Varma
Secor, Eric R.
Srivastava, Sapna
Raychaudhuri, Utpal
Menon, Venugopal P.
Otani, Hajime
Thrall, Roger S.
Maulik, Nilanjana
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Biological Chemistry

Defects in dendritic spines and synapses contribute to cognitive deficits in mental retardation syndromes and, potentially, Alzheimer disease. p21-activated kinases (PAKs) regulate actin filaments and morphogenesis of dendritic spines regulated by the Rho family GTPases Rac and Cdc42. We previously reported that active PAK was markedly reduced in Alzheimer disease cytosol, accompanied by downstream loss of the spine actin-regulatory protein Drebrin. beta-Amyloid (Abeta) oligomer was implicated in PAK defects.

Author(s): 
Ma, Qiu-Lan
Yang, Fusheng
Calon, Frederic
Ubeda, Oliver J.
Hansen, James E.
Weisbart, Richard H.
Beech, Walter
Frautschy, Sally A.
Cole, Greg M.
Publication Title: 
Free Radical Biology & Medicine

Pyocyanin (N-methyl-1-hydroxyphenazine), a redox-active virulence factor produced by the human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa, is known to compromise mucociliary clearance. Exposure of human bronchial epithelial cells to pyocyanin increased the rate of cellular release of H(2)O(2) threefold above the endogenous H(2)O(2) production.

Author(s): 
Schwarzer, Christian
Fischer, Horst
Kim, Eun-Jin
Barber, Katharine J.
Mills, Aaron D.
Kurth, Mark J.
Gruenert, Dieter C.
Suh, Jung H.
Machen, Terry E.
Illek, Beate
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Biological Chemistry

Alzheimer disease is an age-related neurodegenerative disorder characterized by amyloid-beta (Abeta) peptide deposition into cerebral amyloid plaques. The natural polyphenol resveratrol promotes anti-aging pathways via the activation of several metabolic sensors, including the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Resveratrol also lowers Abeta levels in cell lines; however, the underlying mechanism responsible for this effect is largely unknown. Moreover, the bioavailability of resveratrol in the brain remains uncertain.

Author(s): 
Vingtdeux, Valérie
Giliberto, Luca
Zhao, Haitian
Chandakkar, Pallavi
Wu, Qingli
Simon, James E.
Janle, Elsa M.
Lobo, Jessica
Ferruzzi, Mario G.
Davies, Peter
Marambaud, Philippe
Publication Title: 
BMC complementary and alternative medicine

BACKGROUND: With a traditional medical use for treatment of various ailments, herbal preparations of Echinacea are now popularly used to improve immune responses. One likely mode of action is that alkamides from Echinacea bind to cannabinoid type 2 (CB2) receptors and induce a transient increase in intracellular Ca2+. Here, we show that unidentified compounds from Echinacea purpurea induce cytosolic Ca2+ elevation in non-immune-related cells, which lack CB2 receptors and that the Ca2+ elevation is not influenced by alkamides.

Author(s): 
Wu, Lankun
Rowe, Eric W.
Jeftinija, Ksenija
Jeftinija, Srdija
Rizshsky, Ludmila
Nikolau, Basil J.
McKay, Jodi
Kohut, Marian
Wurtele, Eve Syrkin
Publication Title: 
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Recent advances in metabolic engineering have demonstrated that microbial biosynthesis can provide a viable alternative to chemical synthesis for the production of bulk and fine chemicals. Introduction of a new biosynthetic pathway typically requires the expression of multiple heterologous enzymes in the production host, which can impose stress on the host cell and, thereby, limit performance of the pathway. Unfortunately, analysis and treatment of the host stress response can be difficult, because there are many sources of stress that may interact in complex ways.

Author(s): 
Michener, Joshua K.
Nielsen, Jens
Smolke, Christina D.

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