Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) is a critical regulator of many physiological functions, ranging from longevity to immunity. However, little is known about the role of IGF-1 in natural killer cell development and function. Here, we identify an essential role for IGF-1 in the positive regulation of human natural killer cell development and cytotoxicity. Specifically, we show that human natural killer cells have the ability to produce IGF-1 and that differential endogenous IGF-1 expression leads to disparate cytotoxicity in human primary natural killer cells.
This study was a 19-week prospective conducted to determine the effectiveness of a self-hypnosis/relaxation intervention to relieve symptoms of psychological distress and moderate immune system reactivity to examination stress in 35 first-year medical students. Twenty-one subjects were randomly selected for training in the use of self-hypnosis as a coping skill and were encouraged to practice regularly and to maintain daily diary records related to mood, sleep, physical symptoms, and frequency of relaxation practice.
Immunomodulatory activity of an Ayurvedic polyherbal formulation, Immu-21 containing extracts of Ocimum sanctum, Withania somnifera, Emblica officinalis and Tinospora cordifolia was studied on proliferative response of splenic leukocytes to T cell mitogens, concanavalin (Con)-A and phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and B cell mitogen, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in vitro by [3H]-thymidine uptake assay in mice. The cytotoxic activity of Immu-21 was tested by measuring the splenic leukocyte natural killer (NK) cell activity against K 562 cells.
In common with many other cell types, synovial fibroblasts produce exosomes. In this study, we show that the exosomes produced by synovial fibroblasts obtained from individuals with rheumatoid arthritis (RASF), but not exosomes produced by synovial fibroblasts obtained from individuals with osteoarthritis, contain a membrane bound form of TNF-alpha as demonstrated by colloidal gold immunostaining of TNF-alpha and confirmed by both Western blot and mass spectrometry.
The antioxidant lipoic acid (LA) treats and prevents the animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS), experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). In an effort to understand the therapeutic potential of LA in MS, we sought to define the cellular mechanisms that mediate the effects of LA on human natural killer (NK) cells, which are important in innate immunity as the first line of defense against invading pathogens and tumor cells. We discovered that LA stimulates cAMP production in NK cells in a dose-dependent manner.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The increased levels of extracellular adenosine in inflamed tissues down-regulate activated immune cells via the A(2A) adenosine receptor. This A(2A) adenosine receptor-mediated immunosuppression is a disqualifying obstacle in cancer immunotherapy as it protects cancerous tissues from adoptively transferred anti-tumour T cells. The aim of this study was to test whether the negative selection of T cells will produce T cells that are resistant to inhibition by extracellular adenosine.
Immunosuppressive signaling via the A2A adenosine receptor (A2AR) provokes a mechanism that protects inflamed tissues from excessive damage by immune cells. This mechanism is desirable not only for preventing uncontrolled tissue destruction by overactive immune responses, but also for protecting tumor tissues from antitumor immune responses. In aforementioned circumstances, T cell priming may occur in an environment containing high concentrations of extracellular adenosine.
Cytotoxic CD8(+) T cells are major players of anti-tumor immune responses, as their functional activity can limit tumor growth and progression. Data show that cytotoxic T cells efficiently control the proliferation of tumor cells through major histocompatibility complex class I-mediated mechanisms; nevertheless, the presence of tumor-infiltrating CD8(+) T cells in lesional tissue does not always correlate with better prognosis and increased survival of cancer patients.
Journal of Interferon & Cytokine Research: The Official Journal of the International Society for Interferon and Cytokine Research
γδ T cells are innate lymphocytes that recognize and kill a range of tumor cells and are currently being explored as a target for tumor immunotherapy. However, γδ T cells play a complex role in cancer and can promote, as well as inhibit, tumor growth. In addition to tumor cell killing, γδ T cells express a number of cytokines and other soluble factors in response to tumors. Soluble factors expressed by γδ T cells in these settings include interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-4, IL-10, transforming growth factor-β, IL-17, and a number of growth factors.
Twenty-nine gay men (20 HIV+, 9 HIV-) received daily massages for one month. A subset of 11 of the HIV+ subjects served as a within subject control group (one month with and without massages). Major immune findings for the effects of the month of massage included a significant increase in Natural Killer Cell number, Natural Killer Cell Cytotoxicity, soluble CD8, and the cytotoxic subset of CD8 cells. There were no changes in HIV disease progression markers (CD4, CD4/CD8 ratio, Beta-2 microglobulin, neopterin).