Deficiency Diseases

Publication Title: 
Geriatrics
Author(s): 
Mayer, J.
Publication Title: 
Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine
Author(s): 
Blackburn, E. K.
Lorber, J.
Publication Title: 
The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

BACKGROUND: Information on the micronutrient quality of alternative weight-loss diets is limited, despite the significant public health relevance. OBJECTIVE: Micronutrient intake was compared between overweight or obese women randomly assigned to 4 popular diets that varied primarily in macronutrient distribution. DESIGN: Dietary data were collected from women in the Atkins (n = 73), Zone (n = 73), LEARN (Lifestyle, Exercise, Attitudes, Relationships, Nutrition) (n = 73), and Ornish (n = 72) diet groups by using 3-d, unannounced 24-h recalls at baseline and after 8 wk of instruction.

Author(s): 
Gardner, Christopher D.
Kim, Soowon
Bersamin, Andrea
Dopler-Nelson, Mindy
Otten, Jennifer
Oelrich, Beibei
Cherin, Rise
Publication Title: 
Annual Review of Nutrition

Essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are critical nutritional lipids that must be obtained from the diet to sustain homeostasis. Omega-3 and -6 PUFAs are key components of biomembranes and play important roles in cell integrity, development, maintenance, and function. The essential omega-3 fatty acid family member docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is avidly retained and uniquely concentrated in the nervous system, particularly in photoreceptors and synaptic membranes. DHA plays a key role in vision, neuroprotection, successful aging, memory, and other functions.

Author(s): 
Bazan, Nicolas G.
Molina, Miguel F.
Gordon, William C.
Publication Title: 
Roczniki Państwowego Zakładu Higieny

A vegetarian diet may be adopted for various reasons that can include ecological, economic, religious, ethical and health considerations. In the latter case they arise from the desire to lose weight, in tackling obesity, improving physical fitness and/or in reducing the risk of acquiring certain diseases.

Author(s): 
Pilis, Wiesław
Stec, Krzysztof
Zych, Michał
Pilis, Anna
Publication Title: 
The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

BACKGROUND: Micronutrient deficiencies are common in patients undergoing gastric bypass. The effect of this type of surgery on zinc absorption and zinc status is not well known. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to evaluate the effects of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGBP) on zinc status and zinc absorption at different stages after surgery. We hypothesized that zinc status would be significantly impaired after surgery and that this impairment would be less severe in subjects receiving increased supplemental zinc. We also hypothesized that zinc absorption would be lower after surgery.

Author(s): 
Ruz, Manuel
Carrasco, Fernando
Rojas, Pamela
Codoceo, Juana
Inostroza, Jorge
Basfi-fer, Karen
Csendes, Attila
Papapietro, Karin
Pizarro, Fernando
Olivares, Manuel
Sian, Lei
Westcott, Jamie L.
Miller, Leland V.
Hambidge, K. Michael
Krebs, Nancy F.
Publication Title: 
The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

BACKGROUND: Calcium supplementation of pregnant Gambian women with a low calcium intake results in lower maternal bone mineral content in the subsequent lactation. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to investigate whether the lower bone mineral content persists long term. DESIGN: All women in the calcium supplementation trial (International Trial Registry ISRCTN96502494) who had been scanned with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at 52 wk of lactation (L52; n = 79) were invited for follow-up when neither pregnant nor lactating for ≥3 mo (NPNL) or at 52 wk postpartum in a future lactation (F52).

Author(s): 
Jarjou, Landing M. A.
Sawo, Yankuba
Goldberg, Gail R.
Laskey, M. Ann
Cole, Tim J.
Prentice, Ann
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Clinical Investigation

The hypothesis that clinical and biochemical essential fatty acid deficiency (EFA) might occur from the feeding of eucaloric, fat-free diets was tested in two experiments in healthy men. In Study I, eight men were given fat-free, eucaloric diets containing 80% of calories as glucose and 20% as amino acid hydrolysates by a constant drip over a 24-h period. The diets were fed in succession for periods of 2 wk each, either through a superior vena cava catheter or via a nasogastric tube.

Author(s): 
Wene, J. D.
Connor, W. E.
DenBesten, L.
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