Dendrites

Publication Title: 
Critical Reviews in Neurobiology

Several lines of evidence support the role of an epigenetic-induced GABAergic cortical dysfunction in schizophrenia psychopathology, which is probably dependent on an increase in the expression of DNA-methyltransferase-1 occurring selectively in GABAergic neurons. The key enzyme regulating GABA synthesis, termed glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 (GAD67) and the important neurodevelopmental protein called reelin are coexpressed in GABAergic neurons. Upon release, GABA and reelin bind to postsynaptic receptors located in dendrites, somata, or the axon initial segment of pyramidal neurons.

Author(s): 
Costa, E.
Davis, J. M.
Dong, E.
Grayson, D. R.
Guidotti, A.
Tremolizzo, L.
Veldic, M.
Publication Title: 
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences

If mRNAs were the only RNAs made by a neuron, there would be a simple mapping of mRNAs to proteins. However, microRNAs and other non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs; endo-siRNAs, piRNAs, BC1, BC200, antisense and long ncRNAs, repeat-related transcripts, etc.) regulate mRNAs via effects on protein translation as well as transcriptional and epigenetic mechanisms. Not only are genes ON or OFF, but their ability to be translated can be turned ON or OFF at the level of synapses, supporting an enormous increase in information capacity.

Author(s): 
Smalheiser, Neil R.
Publication Title: 
The International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology

BACKGROUND: The human Val66Met polymorphism in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a key factor in neuroplasticity, synaptic function, and cognition, has been implicated in the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. BDNF is encoded by multiple transcripts with distinct regulation and localization, but the impact of the Val66Met polymorphism on BDNF regulation remains unclear.

Author(s): 
Mallei, Alessandra
Baj, Gabriele
Ieraci, Alessandro
Corna, Stefano
Musazzi, Laura
Lee, Francis S.
Tongiorgi, Enrico
Popoli, Maurizio
Publication Title: 
Molecular Psychiatry

Increased dosage of methyl-CpG-binding protein-2 (MeCP2) results in a dramatic neurodevelopmental phenotype with onset at birth. We generated induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from patients with the MECP2 duplication syndrome (MECP2dup), carrying different duplication sizes, to study the impact of increased MeCP2 dosage in human neurons. We show that cortical neurons derived from these different MECP2dup iPSC lines have increased synaptogenesis and dendritic complexity.

Author(s): 
Nageshappa, S.
Carromeu, C.
Trujillo, C. A.
Mesci, P.
Espuny-Camacho, I.
Pasciuto, E.
Vanderhaeghen, P.
Verfaillie, C. M.
Raitano, S.
Kumar, A.
Carvalho, C. M. B.
Bagni, C.
Ramocki, M. B.
Araujo, B. H. S.
Torres, L. B.
Lupski, J. R.
Van Esch, H.
Muotri, A. R.
Publication Title: 
Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan

Ashwagandha (root of Withania somnifera) has been used for many purposes, it is mainly considered a tonic in traditional Ayurvedic medicine. This review focuses on the effects of compounds isolated from Ashwagandha on dementia models and on the spinal cord injury model. Our study demonstrated that the active constituents, withanolide A, withanoside IV, and withanoside VI, restored presynapses and postsynapses, in addition to both axons and dendrites in cortical neurons after Abeta(25-35)-induced injury.

Author(s): 
Tohda, Chihiro
Publication Title: 
Clinics (São Paulo, Brazil)

OBJECTIVE: In the ancient Indian system of medicine, Ayurveda, Bacopa monniera is classified as Medhya rasayana, which includes medicinal plants that rejuvenate intellect and memory. Here, we investigated the effect of a standardized extract of Bacopa monniera on the dendritic morphology of neurons in the basolateral amygdala, a region that is concerned with learning and memory. METHODS: The present study was conducted on 2½-month-old Wistar rats. The rats were divided into 2-, 4- and 6-week treatment groups.

Author(s): 
Vollala, Venkata Ramana
Upadhya, Subramanya
Nayak, Satheesha
Publication Title: 
Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology = Revue Roumaine De Morphologie Et Embryologie

OBJECTIVE: Bacopa monniera (BM), a traditional Ayurvedic medicine has been used in treatment for a number of disorders, particularly those involving anxiety, intellect and poor memory. The current study examined the effects of standardized extract of Bacopa monniera on the dendritic morphology in adult rats of hippocampal CA3 neurons, one of the regions concerned with learning and memory. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Adult Wistar (2.5-month-old) rats were designated into 2-, 4- and 6-week treatment groups.

Author(s): 
Vollala, Venkata Ramana
Upadhya, Subramanya
Nayak, Satheesha
Publication Title: 
PloS One

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by progressive dysfunction of memory and higher cognitive functions with abnormal accumulation of extracellular amyloid plaques and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles throughout cortical and limbic brain regions. At present no curative treatment is available, and research focuses on drugs for slowing disease progression or providing prophylaxis. Withania somnifera (WS) also known as 'ashwagandha' is used widely in Ayurvedic medicine as a nerve tonic and memory enhancer.

Author(s): 
Kurapati, Kesava Rao Venkata
Atluri, Venkata Subba Rao
Samikkannu, Thangavel
Nair, Madhavan P. N.
Publication Title: 
Journal of the Chinese Medical Association: JCMA

BACKGROUND: Centella asiatica (CeA) is a creeper, growing in moist places in India and other Asian countries. Leaves of CeA are used for memory enhancement in the Ayurvedic system of medicine, an alternate system of medicine in India. In the present study, we investigated the role of CeA fresh leaf extract treatment on the dendritic morphology of hippocampal CA3 neurons, one of the regions concerned with learning and memory, in adult rats.

Author(s): 
Gadahad, Mohandas Rao Kappettu
Rao, Muddanna
Rao, Gurumadhva
Publication Title: 
Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan

Ashwagandha (root of Withania somnifera) has been used for many purposes, it is mainly considered a tonic in traditional Ayurvedic medicine. This review focuses on the effects of compounds isolated from Ashwagandha on dementia models and on the spinal cord injury model. Our study demonstrated that the active constituents, withanolide A, withanoside IV, and withanoside VI, restored presynapses and postsynapses, in addition to both axons and dendrites in cortical neurons after Abeta(25-35)-induced injury.

Author(s): 
Tohda, Chihiro

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