Granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is a key cytokine for the generation and stimulation of dendritic cells (DCs), and it may also play a pivotal role in promoting the survival of DCs. In this study, the feasibility of creating a cancer vaccine using DCs adenovirally transduced with the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) gene and the GM-CSF gene was examined. In addition, the effect of the co-transduction of GM-CSF gene on the lifespan of these genetically modified DCs was determined.
The target of rapamycin (TOR) is a crucial intracellular regulator of the immune system. Recent studies have suggested that immunosuppression by TOR inhibition may be mediated by modulating differentiation of both effector and regulatory CD4 T cell subsets. However, it was paradoxically shown that inhibiting TOR signaling has immunostimulatory effects on the generation of long-lived memory CD8 T cells. Beneficial effects of TOR inhibition have also been observed with dendritic cells and hematopoietic stem cells.
Tumors use a wide array of immunosuppressive strategies, such as reducing the longevity and survival of dendritic cells (DCs), to diminish immune responses and limit the effect of immunotherapy. In this study, we found that tumors upregulate the expression of multiple microRNAs (miRNAs), such as miR-16-1, miR-22, miR-155, and miR-503. These tumor-associated miRNAs influenced the survival and longevity of DCs by affecting the expression of multiple molecules that are associated with apoptotic signaling pathways.
Recent insights into discrete myeloid developmental pathways have provided critical information about the organization of the murine mononuclear phagocyte compartment. Short-lived dendritic cells (DCs) have been shown to continuously arise from dedicated bone marrow-derived precursors. In contrast, it is now appreciated that most tissue macrophage populations are established before birth and subsequently maintain themselves throughout adulthood by longevity and limited self-renewal.
BACKGROUND: Dendritic cells (DCs) are highly specialized antigen-presenting cells that are crucial for initiation of immune responses. During naturally acquired malaria, DC number and function is reduced. METHODS: The timing of, parasitemia threshold of, and contribution of apoptosis to DC loss were prospectively evaluated in 10 men after experimental challenge with approximately 1800 Plasmodium falciparum-parasitized red blood cells (pRBCs) and after drug cure initiated at a parasite level of ? 1000 parasites/mL.
CD34+ precursors in normal human bone marrow (BM) generate large numbers of dendritic cells alongside macrophages and granulocytic precursors when cultured for 12 to 14 days in c-kit ligand, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). This study reports an intermediate cell type that develops by day 6, and has the potential to differentiate into either macrophages or dendritic cells.
Most anticancer chemotherapies are immunosuppressive and induce nonimmunogenic tumor cell death. Bortezomib, a specific inhibitor of 26S proteasome, has shown clinical activity in several human tumors, including myeloma. Here we show that the uptake of human myeloma cells by dendritic cells (DCs) after tumor cell death by bortezomib, but not gamma irradiation or steroids, leads to the induction of antitumor immunity, including against primary tumor cells, without the need for any additional adjuvants.
Although thymosins have been demonstrated to have immunomodulatory effects, it is still not clear whether they could affect dendritic cells (DCs), the most professional antigen-presenting cells. The objective of this study was to determine the effect and potential mechanisms of thymosin-alpha1 (Talpha1) on DC differentiation and functional maturation. Human peripheral blood CD14(+) monocytes were purified by using a magnetic separation column and cultured with GM-CSF and IL-4 to differentiate into immature DCs (iDCs).
Dendritic cells (DCs) are antigen-presenting cells specialized to initiate and maintain immunity and tolerance. DCs initiate immune responses in a manner that depends on signals they receive from pathogens, surrounding cells and their products. Most tumors are infiltrated by DCs. Thus, interactions between DCs and dying tumor cells may determine the balance between immunity and tolerance to tumor cells. In addition, DCs also display non-immunologic effects on tumors and the tumor microenvironment.
Despite accumulating knowledge of porcine macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs) from in vitro studies, information regarding monocytes/macrophages and DCs in lymphoid tissues of enteric pathogen-infected neonatal animals in vivo is limited. In this study we evaluated the influence of commensal bacterial [two strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), Lactobacillus acidophilus and L. reuteri] colonization and rotavirus infection on distribution and frequencies of monocytes/macrophages and conventional DCs (cDCs) in ileum, spleen and blood.