Several 1-aryl-3-(2-pyrimidyl)thiocarbamides and their corresponding cyclized 2-arylimino-3-(2-pyrimidyl)thiazolid-4-ones were synthesized and characterized by their sharp melting points and elemental analyses. These thiocarbamides and thiazolidones possessed anticonvulsant activity against pentylenetetrazol-induced convulsions and potentiated pentobarbital-induced hypnosis in mice. Most of these thiocarbamides and thiazolidones selectively inhibited nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)-dependent oxidation of pyruvate, where the use of added NAD dether hand, remained unaltered.
Substituted benzylamide derivatives of amino acylamide (compound A,B,C, & D) were found to be less potent local anaesthetics than lignocaine and procaine. However, the four compounds exhibited sedation without ptosis and reduced spontaneous locomotor activity better than methaqualone. Compound A alone antagonised methylamphetamine induced hypermotor activity. The test compounds potentiated hexobarbitone induced hypnosis. Three compounds antagonised calcium induced stoppage of isolated heart of frog.
Research Communications in Chemical Pathology and Pharmacology
Pretreatment of rats with cadmium potentiates the duration of hexobarbital hypnosis and inhibits the rate of hepatic hexobarbital metabolism in male and female rats. In contrast, treatment with cadmium pe and female rats. Thus, sex-related differences in cadmium inhibition of hepatic drug metabolism is apparently substrate dependent.
Long Sleep (LS) and Short Sleep (SS) mice were used in this study to investigate the interaction between ethanol and taurine. Sleep time (hypnosis) was selected as an index of ethanol-induced central nervous system depression. In order to achieve a similar degree of central nervous system depression with ethanol, SS and LS mice received 5.3 and 3.0 g/kg, IP, of ethanol, respectively.
We have studied interactions between i.v. propofol and midazolam for induction of anaesthesia in 200 unpremedicated female patients undergoing elective gynaecological surgery. Using end-points of "hypnosis" (loss of response to verbal command) and "anaesthesia" (loss of response to a 5-s transcutaneous tetanic stimulus), we determined dose-response curves for propofol and midazolam alone and in combination. For hypnosis, synergistic interaction was found (P less than 0.01), the combination having 1.44 times the potency of the individual agents.
Flumazenil, a benzodiazepine antagonist, clearly reverses midazolam-induced sedation; reversal of ventilatory depression has not been as well demonstrated. Thirty-two subjects completed this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study investigating the dose-response relationship and duration of flumazenil's effects on ventilatory depression and hypnosis induced by a continuous midazolam infusion.
The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Dectin-1 is the primary pattern recognition receptor for fungal glucans. Dectin-1 mediates the internalization and biological response to glucans. We examined the effect of i.v. or i.p. glucan phosphate (GP) administration on Dectin-1 membrane expression in murine peripheral blood leukocytes, splenocytes, bone marrow, and peritoneal cells from 3 h to 10 days after injection. Circulating leukocytes were also examined for uptake and internalization of glucans from the blood.