Bile acids are detergent molecules derived from cholesterol in the liver that are important for the metabolism and absorption of lipids in the intestine. Bile acids are also steroid hormones activating specific nuclear receptors and G protein-coupled receptors. Conjugated bile acids are cytoprotective and anticarcinogenic. Bile acid synthesis and bile flow decreases markedly during aging.
Fish oil (FO) targets lipid microdomain organization to suppress T-cell and macrophage function; however, little is known about this relationship with B cells, especially at the animal level. We previously established that a high FO dose diminished mouse B-cell lipid raft microdomain clustering induced by cross-linking GM1. To establish relevance, here we tested a FO dose modeling human intake on B-cell raft organization relative to a control.
Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), enriched in fish oils, are increasingly recognized to have potential benefits for treating many human afflictions. Despite the importance of PUFA, their molecular mechanism of action remains unclear. One emerging hypothesis is that phospholipids containing n-3 PUFA acyl chains modify the structure and composition of membrane rafts, thus affecting cell signaling. In this study the two major n-3 PUFA found in fish oils, eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids, are compared.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a leading determinant of mortality and morbidity in the world. Epidemiologic studies suggest that flavonoid intake plays a role in the prevention of CVD. Consumption of cocoa products rich in flavonoids lowers blood pressure and improves endothelial function in healthy subjects as well as in subjects with vascular dysfunction such as smokers and diabetics. The vascular actions of cocoa follow the stimulation of nitric oxide (NO). These actions can be reproduced by the administration of the cocoa flavanol (-)-epicatechin (EPI).