The Long-Sleep (LS) and Short-Sleep (SS) mouse synaptosomal plasma membranes differ in ethanol sensitivity at superficial membrane regions, which corresponds with the behavioral response of the mice to ethanol hypnosis. The only significant difference between these synaptosomal plasma membranes is the synaptosomal monosialoganglioside (GM1) content, LS > SS. Here, GM1 was examined as a parameter for increasing membrane sensitivity to ethanol effects in the ethanol-resistant SS membranes. Synaptosomal plasma membranes from SS mice were allowed to incorporate exogenous GM1.
A general approach for discovering novel catabolic metabolites from a parent biocompound was developed and validated on the metabolism of gamma-tocopherol in human A549 cell. The method is based on LC-MS analysis of in vitro stable isotope-labeled metabolites and assumes that a parent compound and its metabolites share a common functional group that can be derivatized by well-documented reagents.
Cardiolipin (CL) is a unique phospholipid (PL) found in the mitochondria of mammalian cells. CL remodeling is accompanied by turnover of its fatty acid acyl groups. Abnormalities in CL remodeling have been found in Barth's syndrome, diabetes, and obesity. The objective of this study was to determine nonessential fatty acid turnover in CL and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) in the rat heart in vivo. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either a regular chow or a high-fat diet for 15 weeks, and consumed 6% deuterium-enriched drinking water as a tracer for 14 days.
Western diets are enriched in omega-6 vs. omega-3 fatty acids, and a shift in this balance toward omega-3 fatty acids may have health benefits. There is limited information about the catabolism of 3-series prostaglandins (PG) formed from eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), a fish oil omega-3 fatty acid that becomes elevated in tissues following fish oil consumption. Quantification of appropriate urinary 3-series PG metabolites could be used for noninvasive measurement of omega-3 fatty acid tone.
Although advances in cancer therapies continue to develop, the shortness of the survival of lung cancer patients is still disappointing. Therefore, finding new adjuvant strategies is within the focus of cancer cure. Based on observations that deuterium depletion inhibits the growth of cancer cell lines and suppresses certain proto-oncogenes, we have conducted a clinical study in 129 patients with small cell and nonsmall cell lung cancers who consumed deuterium-depleted drinking water (DDW) as a nontoxic agent in addition to conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy.
A heavy water ((2)H(2)O) labeling method recently developed to measure cell proliferation in vivo is applied here to the measurement of murine epidermal cell turnover and to investigate conditions in which keratinocyte proliferation is either inhibited or stimulated. The technique is based on incorporation of (2)H(2)O into the deoxyribose moiety of deoxyribonucleotides in dividing cells. Label incorporation and die-away studies in cells isolated from C57BL/6J mouse epidermis revealed the replacement rate to be 34%-44% per wk (half-life of 1.6-2 wk).