South African Medical Journal = Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
Compared with our ancestor's diet, that consumed by present-day Western populations is higher in intake of energy, of protein (especially animal protein) and of fat (especially animal fat), but lower in intake of fibre-containing cereal foods; this diet is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality from degenerative diseases.
In populations in sub-Saharan Africa, transitional changes in patterns of morbidity and mortality are taking place, with decreases in the diseases of poverty and infection, but rises in chronic diseases of prosperity, associated, however, with greater longevity. Remarkably, bowel diseases - appendicitis, diverticular disease, colon cancer - while nearly absent in rural areas, have very low incidences in urban dwellers, despite rises in risk factors, including a decreasing intake of fibre-containing foods.
BACKGROUND: Diabetes constitutes a global public health problem. Today about 135 million people are affected and it is estimated that the number in 2025 will be 300 million. AIMS: By reviewing existing literature the aim is to raise awareness among nurses, nurse educators and nursing students of the global epidemic of diabetes mellitus, its multiple underlying causes, especially social ones, and how to fight it. A further aim is to discuss the implications for future curriculum content in nurse education programmes.
Inadequate levels of essential nutrients is a most important factor in environmental health, leading to an almost monotonic increase in the incidence, morbidity, mortality, and associated costs of 'diseases of affluence' that has persisted for circa a century.
Developing countries face the double menace of still prevalent infectious diseases and increasing cardiovascular disease (CVD) with epidemic proportions in the near future, linked to demographic changes (expansion and ageing), and to urbanisation and lifestyle modifications. It is estimated that the elderly population will increase globally (over 80% during the next 25 years), with a large share of this rise in the developing world because of expanding populations. Increasing longevity prolongs the time exposure to risk factors, resulting in a greater probability of CVD.
The Black Swan Theory was described by Nassim Nicholas Taleb in his book "The Black Swan". This theory refers to "high-impact, hard-to-predict, and rare events beyond the realm of normal expectations". According to Taleb's criteria, a Black Swan Event is a surprise, it has a major impact and after the fact, the event is rationalized by hindsight, as if it had been expected. For most of human history centenarians were a rare and unpredictable phenomenon.
World Hospitals and Health Services: The Official Journal of the International Hospital Federation
In Sub-Saharan Africa private voluntary health care providers are mostly Church-related or social not for profit organizations. They provide between 40% and 60% of health care services. In the context of Health Care Reforms, the World Bank and others have (re)discovered these non governmental providers. The World Bank document 'Better Health for Africa', promotes prominent roles for them in the execution of basic package of services and public health tasks. Unfortunately, the World Bank does not outline clearly how these roles should be achieved.