Developmental Disabilities

Publication Title: 
Academic Pediatrics

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the evidence for clinical applications of yoga among the pediatric population. METHODS: We conducted an electronic literature search including CINAHL, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), EMBASE, Medline, PsycINFO, and manual search of retrieved articles from inception of each database until December 2008. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and nonrandomized controlled trials (NRCTs) were selected that included yoga or yoga-based interventions for individuals aged 0 to 21 years.

Author(s): 
Birdee, Gurjeet S.
Yeh, Gloria Y.
Wayne, Peter M.
Phillips, Russell S.
Davis, Roger B.
Gardiner, Paula
Publication Title: 
Research in Developmental Disabilities

Can individuals with developmental disabilities learn mindfulness? If so, with what result? A systematic literature review identified 12 studies that taught mindfulness practice to individuals with mild to severe developmental disabilities, demonstrating that mindfulness intervention could significantly reduce the behavioural and/or psychological problems of this population. The majority of these mindfulness intervention studies were longitudinal, featuring long intervention periods and long lasting intervention effects.

Author(s): 
Hwang, Yoon-Suk
Kearney, Patrick
Publication Title: 
Schizophrenia Research

Annett, Yeo et al. and Klar have each proposed theories that relate the genetics of cerebral lateralization to predisposition to psychosis. These theories are considered in relation to the central paradox that psychosis is associated with a substantial biological disadvantage. Annett's heterozygote advantage hypothesis critically identified lateralization as a major determinant of ability, but it appears that what is inherited is degrees (as suggested by Yeo et al.) rather than (or as well as) direction of lateralization.

Author(s): 
Crow, T. J.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines

This paper reviews publications on developmental trajectories of disruptive behaviour (DB) problems (aggression, opposition-defiance, rule breaking, and stealing-vandalism) over the past decade. Prior to these studies two theoretical models had strongly influenced research on DB: social learning and disease onset. According to these developmental perspectives, children learn DB from their environment and onset of the disease is triggered by accumulated exposition to disruptive models in the environment, including the media.

Author(s): 
Tremblay, Richard E.
Publication Title: 
The International Journal of Neuroscience

ABSTRACT DNA methylation, which has been investigated extensively recently, has been studied in various human diseases, including cancer, and the analysis of DNA methylation has provided useful biomarkers for diagnosing cancer, monitoring treatment, and predicting the prognosis of cancer. Recently, aberrant DNA methylation has been reported in various neuropsychiatric diseases in both postmortem brains and peripheral blood cells.

Author(s): 
Ai, Sanxi
Shen, Lu
Guo, Jifeng
Feng, Xiang
Tang, Beisha
Publication Title: 
Current Opinion in Psychiatry

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Nutrition exerts a pervasive impact on normal and pathological conditions of the nervous system. One critical pathway is the methionine cycle, in which folate and B12 convert homocysteine to methionine, which is in turn converted to S-adenosyl methionine (SAM; the major methyl donor). As a consequence of methylation, however, SAM is converted to the neurotoxin homocysteine and must be excreted or drawn back into the methionine cycle, which requires additional folate and B12.

Author(s): 
Shea, Thomas B.
Rogers, Eugene
Publication Title: 
European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry

During the last decade there has been increased recognition of the prevalence of antenatal depression as well as an expansion in research examining the impact of maternal mood during pregnancy on offspring development. The aim of this review was to summarise the theoretical underpinnings and empirical evidence regarding the impact of antenatal depression on children's developmental outcomes.

Author(s): 
Waters, Cerith S.
Hay, Dale F.
Simmonds, Jessica R.
van Goozen, Stephanie H. M.
Publication Title: 
Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience

The transgenerational epigenetic programming involved in the passage of environmental exposures to stressful periods from one generation to the next has been examined in human populations, and mechanistically in animal models. Epidemiological studies suggest that gestational exposures to environmental factors including stress are strongly associated with an increased risk of neurodevelopmental disorders, including attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder, schizophrenia, and autism spectrum disorders.

Author(s): 
Bale, Tracy L.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Advanced Nursing

AIM: This study explored the experiences of parents who have children with significant developmental disability. BACKGROUND: Prevailing societal and professional assumptions of parental crisis and maladjustment in response to the 'tragedy' of having a disabled child did not accord with the authors' practice experience. Whilst parents confronted numerous difficulties, most of them appeared to manage with optimism and remarkable resourcefulness.

Author(s): 
Kearney, P. M.
Griffin, T.
Publication Title: 
Pediatrics

Hypnotherapy has many uses in pediatrics, and its value, not only as a adjunct but also as a primary therapy for certain conditions, justifies its inclusion in pediatric training programs. Suggestion and expectation have long been related to therapeutic outcomes in medicine, but not all physicians know how to apply them constructively and systematically in communication with patients. In pediatrics there is a tendency to overlook opportunities in which hypnosis might be the treatment of choice.

Author(s): 
Olness, K.
Gardner, G. G.

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