Dextromethorphan

Publication Title: 
Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology

Compounds with anti-glutamatergic properties currently in clinical use for various indications (eg Alzheimer's disease, epilepsy, psychosis, mood disorders) have potential utility as novel treatments for alcoholism. Enhanced sensitivity to certain acute intoxicating effects (ataxia, sedative) of alcohol may be one mechanism by which anti-glutamatergic drugs modulate alcohol use.

Author(s): 
Chen, Yi-Chyan
Holmes, Andrew
Publication Title: 
Drug Metabolism and Disposition: The Biological Fate of Chemicals

Siberian ginseng ([SG]; Eleutherococcus senticosus) is a commonly used herbal preparation. The objective of this study was to assess in normal volunteers (n = 12) the influence of a standardized SG extract on the activity of cytochrome P450 CYP2D6 and 3A4. Probe substrates dextromethorphan (CYP2D6 activity) and alprazolam (CYP3A4 activity) were administered orally at baseline and again following treatment with SG (1 x 485 mg twice daily) for 14 days.

Author(s): 
Donovan, Jennifer L.
DeVane, C. Lindsay
Chavin, Kenneth D.
Taylor, Robin M.
Markowitz, John S.
Publication Title: 
Drug Metabolism and Disposition: The Biological Fate of Chemicals

Green tea extract is a widely used dietary supplement. The objective of this study was to assess the influence of a decaffeinated green tea (DGT; Camellia sinensis) extract on the activity of the drug-metabolizing enzymes cytochrome P-450 2D6 and 3A4. Probe drugs dextromethorphan (30 mg, CYP2D6 activity) and alprazolam (ALPZ; 2 mg, CYP3A4 activity) were administered orally to healthy volunteers (n = 11) at baseline, and again after treatment with four DGT capsules/day for 14 days. Each DGT capsule contained 211 +/- 25 mg of green tea catechins and <1 mg of caffeine.

Author(s): 
Donovan, Jennifer L.
Chavin, Kenneth D.
DeVane, C. Lindsay
Taylor, Robin M.
Wang, Jun-Sheng
Ruan, Ying
Markowitz, John S.
Publication Title: 
Drug Metabolism and Disposition: The Biological Fate of Chemicals

Valerian (Valeriana officinalis) is a popular dietary supplement. The objective of this study was to assess the influence of a valerian extract on the activity of the drug-metabolizing enzymes cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) and 3A4. Probe drugs dextromethorphan (30 mg; CYP2D6 activity) and alprazolam (2 mg; CYP3A4 activity) were administered orally to healthy volunteers (n = 12) at baseline and again after exposure to two 500-mg valerian tablets (1000 mg) nightly for 14 days. The valerian supplement contained a total valerenic acid content of 5.51 mg/tablet.

Author(s): 
Donovan, Jennifer L.
DeVane, C. Lindsay
Chavin, Kenneth D.
Wang, Jun-Sheng
Gibson, Bryan B.
Gefroh, Holly A.
Markowitz, John S.
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Nutrition

Eight water-soluble components of aged garlic extract were evaluated to assess their potential to inhibit the activity of human cytochrome-P450 (CYP) enzymes. The in vitro model consisted of human liver microsomes with index reactions chosen to profile the activity of the following six CYP isoforms: CYP1A2, 2B6, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, and 3A. With only 2 exceptions, none of the 8 garlic components produced >50% inhibition even at high concentrations (100 micromol/L).

Author(s): 
Greenblatt, David J.
Leigh-Pemberton, Richard A.
von Moltke, Lisa L.
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common gastrointestinal disorder in which the pathophysiological mechanisms of the pain and hypersensitivity are not well understood. IBS patients frequently complain of pain in body regions somatotopically distinct from the gut, suggesting that central hyperalgesic mechanisms may be involved. In the current study, during the wind-up testing session, a series of 6 heat pulses were presented with an interstimulus interval (ISI) of 3 seconds.

Author(s): 
Zhou, QiQi
Price, Donald D.
Callam, Christopher S.
Woodruff, Michael A.
Verne, G. Nicholas
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common gastrointestinal disorder in which the pathophysiological mechanisms of the pain and hypersensitivity are incompletely understood. IBS patients frequently complain of pain in body regions somatotopically distinct from the gut, suggesting involvement of central hyperalgesic mechanisms. We tested the role of tonic peripheral impulse input by using both repetitive thermal stimuli to the leg and repetitive stimuli to the rectum. Changes in thermal/visceral pain sensitivity after nociceptive thermal/visceral repetitive stimulation were determined.

Author(s): 
Verne, G. Nicholas
Price, Donald D.
Callam, Christopher S.
Zhang, Buyi
Peck, Josh
Zhou, QiQi
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