Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders

Publication Title: 
BMJ clinical evidence

INTRODUCTION: Prevalence estimates of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) vary according to the diagnostic criteria used and the population sampled. DSM-IV prevalence estimates among school children in the US are 3-5%, but other estimates vary from 1.7% to 16.0%. No objective test exists to confirm the diagnosis of ADHD, which remains a clinical diagnosis. Other conditions frequently co-exist with ADHD.

Author(s): 
Keen, Daphne
Hadijikoumi, Irene
Publication Title: 
BMJ clinical evidence

INTRODUCTION: Prevalence estimates of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) vary according to the diagnostic criteria used and the population sampled. DSM-IV prevalence estimates among school children in the US are 3% to 5%, but other estimates vary from 1.7% to 16.0%. No objective test exists to confirm the diagnosis of ADHD, which remains a clinical diagnosis. Other conditions frequently co-exist with ADHD.

Author(s): 
Keen, Daphne
Hadijikoumi, Irene
Publication Title: 
Schizophrenia Research

A 44 base pair insertion ("l")/deletion ("s") polymorphism (called 5-HTTLPR) in the 5' promoter region of the human serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4) modulates expression and has been associated to anxiety and depressive traits in otherwise healthy individuals. In individuals with psychiatric diagnoses, including schizophrenia, it seems to modulate symptom severity. Thus, it may be a disease modifying gene.

Author(s): 
Goldberg, Terry E.
Kotov, Roman
Lee, Annette T.
Gregersen, Peter K.
Lencz, Todd
Bromet, Evelyn
Malhotra, Anil K.
Publication Title: 
Psychiatria Danubina

After 30 years of clinical work and research based on categorical criteria for personality disorders (Diagnostic and Statistical manual of Mental Disorders - DSM IV TR) and (International Classification of Diseases - ICD 10th revision), a solid conceptual understanding and treatment of these disorders have not been established. For the field to move forward, it is imperative that future classifications introduce major revisions of the concept, diagnosis, and classification of personality disorders. This paper proposes one such revision.

Author(s): 
Svrakic, Dragan M.
Cloninger, Robert C.
Publication Title: 
Psychosomatic Medicine

OBJECTIVES: Comorbidity among eating disorders, traumatic events, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been reported in several studies. The main objectives of this study were to describe the nature of traumatic events experienced and to explore the relationship between PTSD and anorexia nervosa (AN) in a sample of women. METHODS: Eight hundred twenty-four participants from the National Institutes of Health-funded Genetics of Anorexia Nervosa Collaborative Study were assessed for eating disorders, PTSD, and personality characteristics.

Author(s): 
Reyes-RodrÌguez, Mae Lynn
Von Holle, Ann
Ulman, Teresa Frances
Thornton, Laura M.
Klump, Kelly L.
Brandt, Harry
Crawford, Steve
Fichter, Manfred M.
Halmi, Katherine A.
Huber, Thomas
Johnson, Craig
Jones, Ian
Kaplan, Allan S.
Mitchell, James E.
Strober, Michael
Treasure, Janet
Woodside, D. Blake
Berrettini, Wade H.
Kaye, Walter H.
Bulik, Cynthia M.
Publication Title: 
Der Nervenarzt

Diagnostic systems such as the international classification of diseases (ICD-10) or the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM IV) have frequently been criticized as not adequately reflecting the complexity and heterogeneity of insomnia. Progress was made through the introduction of the international classification of sleep disorders (ICSD-2) and the research diagnostic criteria (RDC). The DSM-5 introduced the new category of insomnia disorder, thus relinquishing the traditional dichotomy of primary versus secondary insomnia.

Author(s): 
Riemann, D.
Baglioni, C.
Feige, B.
Spiegelhalder, K.
Publication Title: 
Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy

This prospective study aimed at examining the role of trait internal resources and coping strategies in predicting traumatic exposure and levels of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms after such exposure. In total, 870 Israeli students participated in the study, of whom 182 (20%) reported a lifetime history of traumatic exposure at baseline (t1), and a total of 231 (27%) respondents reported traumatic exposure during follow-up (t2, t3).

Author(s): 
Gil, Sharon
Weinberg, Michael
Publication Title: 
Journal of Personality Disorders

Longitudinal data were used to investigate the association of adolescent personality disorders with conflict between romantic partners during the transition to adulthood (i.e., age 17 to 27). Findings indicated that adolescent personality disorders (PDs) assessed at mean age 16 were associated with subsequent elevated partner conflict. Cluster B PD was associated with sustained elevations in partner conflict throughout the transition to adulthood. Cluster A and C PDs were associated with elevated partner conflict before age 23.

Author(s): 
Chen, Henian
Cohen, Patricia
Johnson, Jeffrey G.
Kasen, Stephanie
Sneed, Joel R.
Crawford, Thomas N.
Publication Title: 
Development and Psychopathology

The present study examined self-reported romantic attachment style and Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) states of mind regarding early attachment relationships, personality dimensions, and psychopathology in a psychiatric sample of trauma survivors. Inpatients (N = 80) admitted to a hospital trauma treatment program were administered the Experiences in Close Relationships Scale, AAI, Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III, Dissociative Experiences Scale, and Dissociative Disorder Interview Schedule.

Author(s): 
Riggs, Shelley A.
Paulson, Adrienne
Tunnell, Ellen
Sahl, Gayla
Atkison, Heather
Ross, Colin A.
Publication Title: 
Psychological Medicine

BACKGROUND: Social dysfunction in personality disorder is commonly ascribed to abnormal temperamental traits but may also reflect deficits in social processing. In this study, we examined whether borderline and avoidant personality disorders (BPD, APD) may be differentiated by deficits in different social domains and whether disorganization of social domain functioning uniquely characterizes BPD. METHOD: Patients were recruited from psychiatric clinics in Pittsburgh, USA, to provide a sample with BPD, APD and a no-personality disorder (no-PD) comparison group.

Author(s): 
Hill, J.
Pilkonis, P.
Morse, J.
Feske, U.
Reynolds, S.
Hope, H.
Charest, C.
Broyden, N.

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