Diagnostic Tests, Routine

Publication Title: 
Pain Research & Management

BACKGROUND: Acute pain is a common experience for hospitalized children. Despite mounting research on treatments for acute procedure-related pain, it remains inadequately treated. OBJECTIVE: To critically appraise all systematic reviews on the effectiveness of acute procedure-related pain management in hospitalized children. METHODS: Published systematic reviews and meta-analyses on pharmacological and nonpharmacological management of acute procedure-related pain in hospitalized children aged one to 18 years were evaluated.

Author(s): 
Stinson, Jennifer
Yamada, Janet
Dickson, Alison
Lamba, Jasmine
Stevens, Bonnie
Publication Title: 
The Gerontologist

PURPOSE: Prevalence estimates of healthy behaviors and preventive care among older adults have not received sufficient attention, despite important health benefits such as longevity and better quality of life. Moreover, little is known about general population prevalences of older adults' efforts to change behavior, motivations to improve health behaviors, and perceived barriers to change.

Author(s): 
Newsom, Jason T.
Kaplan, Mark S.
Huguet, Nathalie
McFarland, Bentson H.
Publication Title: 
Social Science & Medicine (1982)

Evidence supporting a relationship between religion and physical health has increased substantially in the recent past. One possible explanation for this relationship that has not received much attention in the literature is that health care utilization may differ by religious involvement or religious denomination. A nationally representative sample of older adults was used to estimate the effects of religious salience and denomination on six different types of preventative health care (i.e.

Author(s): 
Reindl Benjamins, Maureen
Brown, Carolyn
Publication Title: 
Pain Research & Management: The Journal of the Canadian Pain Society = Journal De La Société Canadienne Pour Le Traitement De La Douleur

BACKGROUND: Acute pain is a common experience for hospitalized children. Despite mounting research on treatments for acute procedure-related pain, it remains inadequately treated. OBJECTIVE: To critically appraise all systematic reviews on the effectiveness of acute procedure-related pain management in hospitalized children. METHODS: Published systematic reviews and meta-analyses on pharmacological and nonpharmacological management of acute procedure-related pain in hospitalized children aged one to 18 years were evaluated.

Author(s): 
Stinson, Jennifer
Yamada, Janet
Dickson, Alison
Lamba, Jasmine
Stevens, Bonnie
Publication Title: 
Tropical medicine & international health: TM & IH

OBJECTIVE: To compare the cost-effectiveness of malaria treatment based on presumptive diagnosis with that of malaria treatment based on rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs). METHODS: We calculated direct costs (based on experience from Ethiopia and southern Sudan) and effectiveness (in terms of reduced over-treatment) of a free, decentralised treatment programme using artesunate plus amodiaquine (AS + AQ) or artemether-lumefantrine (ART-LUM) in a Plasmodium falciparum epidemic. Our main cost-effectiveness measure was the incremental cost per false positive treatment averted by RDTs.

Author(s): 
Rolland, Estelle
Checchi, Francesco
Pinoges, Loretxu
Balkan, Suna
Guthmann, Jean-Paul
Guerin, Philippe J.
Publication Title: 
Malaria Journal

BACKGROUND: Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for malaria are increasingly being considered for routine use in Africa. However, many RDTs are available and selecting the ideal test for a particular setting is challenging. The appropriateness of RDT choice depends in part on patient population and epidemiological setting, and on decision makers' priorities. The model presented (available online) can be used by decision makers to evaluate alternative RDTs and assess the circumstances under which their use is justified on economic grounds.

Author(s): 
Lubell, Yoel
Hopkins, Heidi
Whitty, Christopher J. M.
Staedke, Sarah G.
Mills, Anne
Publication Title: 
Bulletin of the World Health Organization

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relative cost-effectiveness in different sub-Saharan African settings of presumptive treatment, field-standard microscopy and rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) to diagnose malaria. METHODS: We used a decision tree model and probabilistic sensitivity analysis applied to outpatients presenting at rural health facilities with suspected malaria. Costs and effects encompassed those for both patients positive on RDT (assuming artemisinin-based combination therapy) and febrile patients negative on RDT (assuming antibiotic treatment).

Author(s): 
Shillcutt, Samuel
Morel, Chantal
Goodman, Catherine
Coleman, Paul
Bell, David
Whitty, Christopher J. M.
Mills, A.
Publication Title: 
Malaria Journal

BACKGROUND: Within the context of increasing antimalarial costs and or decreasing malaria transmission, the importance of limiting antimalarial treatment to only those confirmed as having malaria parasites becomes paramount. This motivates for this assessment of the cost-effectiveness of routine use of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) as an integral part of deploying artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs).

Author(s): 
Zikusooka, Charlotte M.
McIntyre, Diane
Barnes, Karen I.
Publication Title: 
Malaria Journal

BACKGROUND: The accuracy of malaria diagnosis has received renewed interest in recent years due to changes in treatment policies in favour of relatively high-cost artemisinin-based combination therapies. The use of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) based on histidine-rich protein 2 (HRP2) synthesized by Plasmodium falciparum has been widely advocated to save costs and to minimize inappropriate treatment of non-malarial febrile illnesses.

Author(s): 
Abeku, Tarekegn A.
Kristan, Mojca
Jones, Caroline
Beard, James
Mueller, Dirk H.
Okia, Michael
Rapuoda, Beth
Greenwood, Brian
Cox, Jonathan
Publication Title: 
Malaria Journal

Diagnostic testing for malaria has for many years been eschewed, lest it be an obstacle to the delivery of rapid, life-saving treatment. The approach of treating malaria without confirmatory testing has been reinforced by the availability of inexpensive treatment with few side effects, by the great difficulty of establishing quality-assured microscopy in rural and resource-poor settings, and by the preeminence of malaria as a cause of important fever in endemic regions. Within the last decade, all three of these factors have changed.

Author(s): 
Perkins, Mark D.
Bell, David R.

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