Bergamot essential oil (BEO), Citrus aurantium subsp. bergamia (Risso) Wright & Arn. (Rutaceae), is used widely in aromatherapy to reduce stress and anxiety despite limited scientific evidence. A previous study showed that BEO significantly increased gamma-aminobutyric acid levels in rat hippocampus, suggesting potential anxiolytic properties.
Cure of cognitive disorders such as amnesia, attention deficit, and Alzheimer's disease is still far from being realized in the field of medicine. Nootropic agents such as piracetam, aniracetam, and choline esterase inhibitors like donepezil are being used for improving memory, mood, and behavior, but the resulting side effects associated with these agents have made their applicability limited. In Ayurveda, the roots of Nardostachys jatamansi have been clinically employed for their anti-ischemic, antioxidant, anticonvulsant, and neuroprotective activities.
Ayurveda means "the science of life". Ayur means "life" and Veda means "knowledge or science". It is the oldest medical system in the world. Its origins can be traced as far back as 4500 BC, to four ancient books of knowledge, (the "Vedas") and it is still officially recognized by the government of India. The present study was aimed at investigating the effects of Anwala churna (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.), an Ayurvedic preparation on memory, total serum cholesterol levels and brain cholinesterase activity in mice.
This study investigated the effect of Withania somnifera Dunal (WS) root extract and diazepam in social isolation induced behavior such as anxiety and depression in rats. Rats were isolated for 6 weeks and the assessment of changed behavior were done on elevated plus maze (EPM) and forced swim test (FST). Isolation reared rats spent less time into the open arms on EPM and significantly increased immobility time in FST compared to group housed rats.
The effect of detoxification on Strychnos nux-vomica seeds by traditional processing with aloe and ginger juices (B), by frying in cow ghee (C), and by boiling in cow milk (D) was investigated. The ethanolic extracts of these samples were subjected to spontaneous motor activity (SMA), pentobarbitone-induced hypnosis, PTZ induced convulsions, diazepam-assisted protection, and morphine-induced catalepsy. All samples reduced SMA and inhibited catalepsy.
Drugs used in the management of pregnancy-induced hypertension have been reviewed, and their value and adverse effects on both mother and fetus have been considered. Although magnesium and hydralazine remain the stalwarts of therapy, a number of other drugs have potential that may be realized in the future. Several new medications have promise in correcting the derangements of toxemia, but safety for the fetus has yet to be demonstrated.
Radiatsionnaia Biologiia, Radioecologiia / Rossiĭskaia Akademiia Nauk
Proproten contains ultra-low doses of affinity purified antibodies to S-100 protein dynamized according to the rules of homeopathy. S-100 is regulator of brain integrative activity and takes part in synaptic processes. In experiment on outbred rats proproten demonstrates significant anxiolytic, antidepressant and antiamnestic effects after single and repeated administration. Proproten is similar to the well-known reference preparations diazepam, amitriptyline and piracetam in activity. Proporten's advantage over these drugs is no sedative, myorelaxation and amnestic effects.
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Lavandula angustifolia (lavender) inhalation has been used in folk medicine for the treatment of anxiety, and clinical and animal studies have corroborated its anxiolytic effect, although its mechanism of action is still not fully understood. AIMS OF THE STUDY: The objective of the present study was to determine whether the GABAA/benzodiazepine complex or serotonin neurotransmission mediates the anxiolytic-like effect of lavender essential oil.
The effects of Kamikihi-To (KMK), a traditional Chinese medicine, on behavioral changes induced by methyl-beta-carboline-3-carboxylate (beta-CCM) were evaluated in mice and rats. Beta-CCM, an anxiogenic benzodiazepine receptor inverse agonist (3.0 mg/kg, i.v. administered 1 min before the test), decreased the locomotor activity of mice in a novel environment. Furthermore, beta-CCM (0.1 mg/kg, i.v. administered 10 min before the test) facilitated the suppression of drinking behavior induced by punishment in the water lick conflict test in rats. KMK (1.0 and 2.0 g/kg, p.o.