American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
Adiponectin, a physiologically active polypeptide secreted by adipocytes, shows insulin-sensitizing, anti-inflammatory, and antiatherogenic properties in rodents and humans. To assess the effects of chronic hyperadiponectinemia on metabolic phenotypes, we established three lines of transgenic mice expressing human adiponectin in the liver.
Age-related disease, not aging per se, causes most morbidity in older humans. Here we report that skeletal muscle respiratory uncoupling due to UCP1 expression diminishes age-related disease in three mouse models. In a longevity study, median survival was increased in UCP mice (animals with skeletal muscle-specific UCP1 expression), and lymphoma was detected less frequently in UCP female mice. In apoE null mice, a vascular disease model, diet-induced atherosclerosis was decreased in UCP animals.
Children conceived by assisted reproductive technologies (ART) display a level of vascular dysfunction similar to that seen in children of mothers with preeclamspia. The long-term consequences of ART-associated vascular disorders are unknown and difficult to investigate in healthy children. Here, we found that vasculature from mice generated by ART display endothelial dysfunction and increased stiffness, which translated into arterial hypertension in vivo. Progeny of male ART mice also exhibited vascular dysfunction, suggesting underlying epigenetic modifications.
Boswellia serrata, Linn F (Burseraceae) is commonly used in Indian system of medicine (Ayurvedic) as an anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-arthritic and anti-proliferative agent. This study was planned to investigate the water-soluble fraction of the oleoresin gum of Boswellia serrata (BS extract) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced nitric oxide (NO) production by macrophages under in vivo and in vitro conditions. In the previous condition, rats were fed on atherogenic diet (2.5% cholesterol, 1% cholic acid, 15.7 % saturated fat) along with the BS extract for 90 days.
Intake of soy protein has been associated with improvements in lipid metabolism, with much attention being focused on the serum cholesterol-lowering property of soy. The component or components of soy that are responsible for improvements in lipid metabolism have been investigated and their specific actions debated. One component, the isoflavones, has been shown to have weak estrogenic activity, and recently, several research groups have suggested that isoflavones are activating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs).
Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
OBJECTIVES: The enzyme acyl-coenzymeA (CoA):cholesterol O-acyltransferase 2 (ACAT2) in the liver synthesizes cholesteryl esters (CE) from cholesterol and fatty acyl-CoA, which get incorporated into apoB-containing lipoproteins that are secreted into the bloodstream. Dietary fatty acid composition influences the amount and fatty acid composition of CE within apoB-containing lipoproteins.
Quercetin, a polyphenolic compound and a major bioflavonoid in the human diet, has anti-inflammatory properties and has been postulated to enhance energy expenditure (EE). We sought to determine whether quercetin alters body weight, body composition, EE, and circulating markers of inflammation. At 6 weeks (W) of age, 2 cohorts of C57BL/6J mice (N = 80) were placed on one of 2 diets for 3W or 8W: (1) high fat (HF) (45% kcal fat) or (2) high fat + quercetin (HF + Q) (45% kcal fat + 0.8% quercetin). Quercetin concentrations in the diet and plasma were evaluated using mass spectrometry.
Five commercial botanical products (Shilianhua [SLH] tablets, Shiu Huo pills, Fenulyn, Bitter Melon, and Glucose Metabolic Support), available in the US market, with reported claims for regulation of metabolism were screened for their effect on body weight gain in high-fat diet-induced obese mice. Pilot results suggested that SLH tablets attenuated body weight gain, whereas Shiu Huo pills and Fenulyn tended to promote weight gain in the mice on the high-fat diet.
12/15 lipoxygenase (12/15LO) oxidizes polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) to form bioactive lipid mediators. The role of 12/15LO in atherosclerosis development remains controversial. We evaluated atherosclerosis development and lipid metabolism in 12/15LO-LDL receptor (LDLr) double knockout (DK) vs. LDLr knockout (SK) mice fed a PUFA-enriched diet to enhance production of 12/15LO products.