OBJECTIVE: With the increasing rates of obesity, many people diet in an attempt to lose weight. As weight loss is seldom maintained in a single effort, weight cycling is a common occurrence. Unfortunately, reports from clinical studies that have attempted to determine the effect of weight cycling on mortality are in disagreement, and to date, no controlled animal study has been performed to assess the impact of weight cycling on longevity.
Adiponectin secreted from adipocytes binds to adiponectin receptors AdipoR1 and AdipoR2, and exerts antidiabetic effects via activation of AMPK and PPAR-? pathways, respectively. Levels of adiponectin in plasma are reduced in obesity, which causes insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Thus, orally active small molecules that bind to and activate AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 could ameliorate obesity-related diseases such as type 2 diabetes. Here we report the identification of orally active synthetic small-molecule AdipoR agonists.
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has emerged as a serious obesity-related disorder, and it will continue to be a major liver health issue worldwide in the coming decades. We aimed to determine the effect of Liv-Pro-08 (Nigella sativa, Entada pursaetha, and Ficus glomerata) an oral ayurvedic formulation on rats fed with high-fat diet. Rats were given a high-fat diet for a period of 7 days. After this period, Liv-Pro-08 (250, 500, and 750 mg/kg.body weight was given orally for 7 days.
Bioactive components from bitter melon (BM) have been reported to improve glucose metabolism in vivo, but definitive studies on efficacy and mechanism of action are lacking. We sought to investigate the effects of BM bioactives on body weight, muscle lipid content and insulin signaling in mice fed a high-fat diet and on insulin signaling in L6 myotubes. Male C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into low-fat diet control (LFD), high-fat diet (HFD) and HFD plus BM (BM) groups.
BACKGROUND: Signal transducer and activator of transcription (Stat)-3 and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) are important signaling pathways constitutively activated during inflammation. We previously reported that high-fat diet (HFD) intake induces oxidative stress in the prostate through elevated expression of NADPH oxidase subunits causing NF-κB activation. We sought to determine whether Stat-3 is involved in the activation of NF-κB in the prostate as a result of HFD feeding, leading to inflammation. METHODS: C57BL/6 mice were either fed with regular diet (RD) or HFD for 4 and 8 weeks.
(-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the major polyphenol in green tea, has been shown to prevent the development of obesity in rodent models. Here, we examined the effect of EGCG on markers of fat oxidation in high fat-fed C57bl/6J mice. High fat-fed mice treated with 0.32% dietary EGCG for 16 weeks had reduced body weight gain and final body weight (19.2% and 9.4%, respectively) compared to high fat-fed controls. EGCG-treatment decreased fasting blood glucose, plasma insulin, and insulin resistance by 18.5%, 25.3%, and 33.9%, respectively.
Cardiolipin (CL) is a unique phospholipid (PL) found in the mitochondria of mammalian cells. CL remodeling is accompanied by turnover of its fatty acid acyl groups. Abnormalities in CL remodeling have been found in Barth's syndrome, diabetes, and obesity. The objective of this study was to determine nonessential fatty acid turnover in CL and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) in the rat heart in vivo. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either a regular chow or a high-fat diet for 15 weeks, and consumed 6% deuterium-enriched drinking water as a tracer for 14 days.
International Journal of Hyperthermia: The Official Journal of European Society for Hyperthermic Oncology, North American Hyperthermia Group
PURPOSE: Infrared heat, a transient receptor potential vanilloid type-3 (TRPV3) sensitive stimulus, may have potential physiological effects beneficial to treating metabolic syndrome. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Obesity prone (OP) and obesity resistant (OR) rats were fed for seven days on a high-fat diet. Heat treated OP rats were exposed twice daily to infrared light for 20 min each, separated by 80 min of rest. Food intake, blood pressure, blood glucose, and body weight measurements were taken daily and compared between treated OP rats, untreated OP rats, and OR controls.
The Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
Previous studies suggest that the age-related decline in circulating growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) levels significantly contribute to vascular dysfunction in aging by impairing cellular oxidative stress resistance pathways. Obesity in elderly individuals is increasing at alarming rates, and there is evidence suggesting that elderly individuals are more vulnerable to the deleterious cardiovascular effects of obesity than younger individuals.
Insulin resistance and loss of β-cell mass cause Type 2 diabetes (T2D). The objective of this study was to generate a nongenetic mouse model of T2D. Ninety-six 6-month-old C57BL/6N males were assigned to 1 of 12 groups including (1) low-fat diet (LFD; low-fat control; LFC), (2) LFD with 1 i.p. 40 mg/kg BW streptozotocin (STZ) injection, (3), (4), (5), (6) LFD with 2, 3, 4, or 5 STZ injections on consecutive days, respectively, (7) high-fat diet (HFD), (8) HFD with 1 STZ injection, (9), (10), (11), (12) HFD with 2, 3, 4, or 5 STZ injections on consecutive days, respectively.