BACKGROUND: In addition to lowering LDL-C, emerging data suggests that phytosterols (PS) may reduce blood triglycerides (TG), however, the underlying mechanisms are not known. METHODS: We examined the TG-lowering mechanisms of dietary PS in Syrian golden hamsters randomly assigned to a high fat (HF) diet or the HF diet supplemented with PS (2%) for 6 weeks (n = 12/group). An additional subset of animals (n = 12) was provided the HF diet supplemented with ezetimibe (EZ, 0.002%) as a positive control as it is a cholesterol-lowering agent with known TG-lowering properties.
Homeopathy: The Journal of the Faculty of Homeopathy
BACKGROUND: Homeopathy is a holistic method of treatment that uses microdoses of natural substances originating from plants, minerals, or animal parts. Syzygium jambolanum and Cephalandra indica are used in homeopathy for treatment of type-2 diabetes. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for such effects are not known. METHODS: Homeopathic preparations of S. jambolanum and C. indica in mother tincture, 6c and 30c were used to examine the molecular mechanism of antidiabetic effects in the skeletal muscle of rats with high fat and fructose-induced type-2 diabetes mellitus.
BACKGROUND: Dietary habits play an important role in the prevention of chronic disease; however, few studies have assessed the major dietary patterns in Middle Eastern countries. This study identifies major dietary patterns among Iranian people with abnormal glucose homeostasis. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted at the Diabetes Research Center, Isfahan, Iran among 425 subjects with abnormal glucose homeostasis. Patients were of ages 35 - 55 years and had family histories of diabetes.
This article is intended to provide a comprehensive overview of the role of dietary methods for treatment of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) when pharmacotherapy has proven unsatisfactory or unacceptable. Results of recent research and controlled studies, based on a PubMed search, are emphasized and compared with earlier reports. The recent increase of interest in this form of therapy for ADHD, and especially in the use of omega supplements, significance of iron deficiency, and the avoidance of the "Western pattern" diet, make the discussion timely.
BACKGROUND: The effects of gastric bypass surgery on the secretion of the anorexigenic gut-derived hormones glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and peptide YY (PYY), independent of caloric restriction and due to different dietary macronutrients, is not well characterized. This study examines the effects of a mixed-nutrient or high-fat liquid meal on the postprandial stimulation of GLP-1 and PYY following gastric bypass or equivalent hypocaloric diet.
Afferent signals from the stomach play an important role in inhibition of food intake during a meal. The gastric hormone ghrelin can influence gastric satiety signalling by altering the sensitivity of gastric vagal afferents. Changes in diet, including food restriction and high fat diet (HFD) alter satiety signalling. We hypothesised that the function of gastric vagal afferent endings are affected by both a period of food restriction and a high fat diet, and that the inhibitory effect of ghrelin on vagal afferents is influenced by the different feeding conditions.
AIM: To characterize the influence of diet-induced changes in body fat on colitis severity in SMAD3-/- mice. METHODS: SMAD3-/- mice (6-8 wk of age) were randomly assigned to receive a calorie restricted (30% of control; CR), control (CON), or high fat (HF) diet for 20 wk and were gavaged with sterile broth or with Helicobacter hepaticus (H. hepaticus) to induce colitis. Four weeks after infection, mice were sacrificed and the cecum and colons were processed for histological evaluation.
The aim of this study was to determine the effects of successive cycles of a moderately restrictive diet and refeeding with a high-fat diet on the metabolism of the adipose and hepatic tissues of obese rats. Rats were assigned to the following groups: a chow diet; a high-fat diet; a moderate caloric restriction; or a moderate caloric restriction plus refeeding. Some animals in each group were given [1-(14)C]triolein intragastrically, while others received an intraperitoneal injection of 3 mCi (3)H(2)O. All animals were killed by decapitation.
BACKGROUND: Successful reduction of body weight (BW) is often followed by recidivism to obesity. BW-changes including BW-loss and -regain is associated with marked alterations in energy expenditure (EE) and adipose tissue (AT) metabolism. Since these processes are sex-specifically controlled, we investigated sexual dimorphisms in metabolic processes during BW-dynamics (gain-loss-regain). RESEARCH DESIGN: Obesity was induced in C57BL/6J male (m) and female (f) mice by 15 weeks high-fat diet (HFD) feeding.
Although obesity rates are rapidly rising, caloric restriction remains one of the few safe therapies. Here we tested the hypothesis that obesity-associated disorders are caused by increased adipose tissue as opposed to excess dietary lipids. Fat mass (FM) of lean C57B6 mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD; FMC mice) was "clamped" to match the FM of mice maintained on a low-fat diet (standard diet [SD] mice). FMC mice displayed improved glucose and insulin tolerance as compared with ad libitum HFD mice (P < 0.001) or SD mice (P < 0.05).