Diet is a component in the etiology of the two major causes of death in the United States, namely, cardiovascular disease and cancer. During the last decade, various organizations have suggested that we alter the "typical" American diet in order to decrease the incidence of these diseases even though both diseases are indisputably of multiple etiology. An implication behind these recommendations is that individuals will increase their longevity by changing their diets.
To evaluate the effect on longevity of a diet that is concurrent with common dietary guidelines, a simple diet scoring system was developed and applied in a follow-up study of 2,820 middle-aged Dutch civil servants and their spouses. In the early 1950s those civil servants were seen for a health examination that included a dietary survey. Consumption frequency data of the quantitatively most important food items at that time were used for the diet scoring. Overall survival after 25 years was 46.8% among men and 68.6% among women.
Several factors, such as environment and heredity, are presumed to be related to longevity. Of these nutrition is believed to function as a regulatory factor. Okinawa prefecture is well known as the leading area for longevity in the world. We therefore examined present and past nutrition records together with the background of all the 88 centenarians (18 male, 70 female) who are living in Okinawa in 1991. Their leading occupation was agriculture, and they were in work until the 8th decade.
The present paper examines the relationship of nutritional status to further life expectancy and health status in the Japanese elderly based on 3 epidemiological studies. 1. Nutrient intakes in 94 Japanese centenarians investigated between 1972 and 1973 showed a higher proportion of animal protein to total proteins than in contemporary average Japanese. 2. High intakes of milk and fats and oils had favorable effects on 10-year (1976-1986) survivorship in 422 urban residents aged 69-71.
OBJECTIVES: Vitamin and mineral supplementation is a common practice in the United States, yet little is known about the long-term health effects of regular supplement use. METHODS: To examine the relationship between reported use of supplements and mortality, we analyzed data from US adults 25 to 74 years of age who were examined in the First National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1971 to 1975), with vital status determined through 1987. RESULTS: At baseline, 22.5% of the cohort reported using supplements regularly and 10.0% reported irregular use.
Data from several studies are presented which suggest that the traditional Greek diet still exists in several parts of Greece and several segments of the population. The most profound changes in dietary intakes in recent years concern the increase in the consumption of meat and the decrease in the consumption of pulses.
This study compares the dietary patterns of centenarians (n = 85) with sexagenarians (n = 76) and octogenarians (n = 83). A Daily Diet Diary was developed to code the responses of the 24-hour dietary recalls. Centenarians and octogenarians consumed a more varied (P < 0.05) diet, with higher (P < 0.01) consumption frequencies of milk and grains, and fewer (P < 0.01) skipped breakfasts than sexagenarians. However, centenarians also consumed high fat foods (P < 0.01), such as whole milk and biscuits, and coffee (P < 0.5) more frequently than the two younger cohorts.
OBJECTIVE: To assess the influence of a specific dietary pattern on overall survival. DESIGN: Cohort study. SETTING: Three rural Greek villages, the data from which were collected as part of an international cross cultural study of food habits in later life. SUBJECTS: 182 elderly residents of the three villages. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Overall mortality. RESULTS: Diet was assessed with a validated extensive semiquantitative questionnaire on food intake.