BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Various nonpharmacologic treatments are available for pediatric abdominal pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorders (AP-FGIDs). Data on efficacy and safety are scarce. The goal of this study was to summarize the evidence regarding nonpharmacologic interventions for pediatric AP-FGIDs: lifestyle interventions, dietary interventions, behavioral interventions, prebiotics and probiotics, and alternative medicine. METHODS: Searches were conducted of the Medline and Cochrane Library databases.
BACKGROUND: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common, chronic disorder that leads to decreased health-related quality of life and work productivity. Evidence-based treatment guidelines have not been able to give guidance on the effects of homeopathic treatment for IBS because no systematic reviews have been carried out to assess the effectiveness of homeopathic treatment for IBS. Two types of homeopathic treatment were evaluated in this systematic review. In clinical homeopathy a specific remedy is prescribed for a specific condition.
BACKGROUND: Postpartum constipation, with symptoms such as pain or discomfort, straining, and hard stool, is a common condition affecting mothers. Haemorrhoids, pain at the episiotomy site, effects of pregnancy hormones and haematinics used in pregnancy can increase the risk of postpartum constipation. Eating a high-fibre diet and increasing fluid intake is usually encouraged, although laxatives are commonly used in relieving constipation. The effectiveness and safety of available interventions for preventing postpartum constipation needs to be ascertained.
Besides synthesizing nutritive substances (proteins, fats and carbohydrates) for energy and growth, plants produce numerous non-energetic so-called secondary metabolites (mainly polyphenols) that allow them to protect themselves against infections and other types of hostile environments. Interestingly, these polyphenols often provide cells with valuable bioactive properties for the maintenance of their functions and homeostasis (signaling, gene regulation, protection against acquired or infectious diseases, etc.) both in humans and animals.
Despite all that has been written, little evidence supports the notion that the American diet for the elderly needs major modifications (table 3). Particularly in counseling and assessing the elderly, physicians must keep in mind that whatever technique older patients used to reach their present age is probably better than what we can recommend.
Diet is a component in the etiology of the two major causes of death in the United States, namely, cardiovascular disease and cancer. During the last decade, various organizations have suggested that we alter the "typical" American diet in order to decrease the incidence of these diseases even though both diseases are indisputably of multiple etiology. An implication behind these recommendations is that individuals will increase their longevity by changing their diets.
The current adult guidelines for a healthy diet make no distinctions between adults aged 25-50 y and those aged 51 y and over. The question is whether dietary guidelines ought to be stratified by age, in recognition of the dietary and nutrient needs of the growing population of elderly adults. There are limited data on nutrient requirements of older adults. Aging is accompanied by a variety of physiological, psychological, economic and social changes that may adversely affect nutritional status.
An optimal diet is one that not only prevents nutrient deficiencies by providing sufficient nutrients and energy for human growth and reproduction, but that also promotes health and longevity and reduces the risk of diet-related chronic diseases. The composition of the optimal diet for women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is not yet known, but such a diet must not only assist short term with weight management, symptoms and fertility, but also specifically target the long-term risks of type 2 diabetes, CVD and certain cancers.
The Pritikin Program (Aventura, FL) involves the use of a very-low-fat, low-sodium, high-fiber diet and exercise to decrease the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). This study evaluated the effect of short-term Pritikin therapy on the metabolic risk factors for CHD in patients with the metabolic syndrome. Sixty-seven subjects who had the metabolic syndrome and attended the Pritikin Longevity Center & Spa for 12-15 days were studied.