Organisms perceive changes in their dietary environment and enact a suite of behavioral and metabolic adaptations that can impact motivational behavior, disease resistance, and longevity. However, the precise nature and mechanism of these dietary responses is not known. We have uncovered a novel link between dietary factors and sleep behavior in Drosophila melanogaster.
Macronutrient balance is a critical contributor in modulating lifespan and health. Consumption of diets rich in fruits and vegetables provides numerous health benefits. The interactions among macronutrients and botanicals and how they influence aging and health remain elusive. Here we employed a nutritional geometry approach to investigate the interplay among dietary fat, sugar, protein and antioxidant- and polyphenolic-rich freeze-dried aÁai pulp in modulating lifespan and reproductive output in the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew).
Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recent findings suggest that high-sugar diets can lead to cognitive impairment predisposing to neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease. This article discusses metabolic derangements induced by high-fructose/sucrose diets and presents evidence for the involvement of insulin resistance in sporadic Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis. RECENT FINDINGS: There has been much concern regarding the role of dietary sugars (fructose/sucrose) in the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D).
Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved
BACKGROUND: Oral health disparities related to socioeconomic status have been well described in the U.S., but oral health among refugee groups has not been well characterized. This article examines oral health among Somali refugees in Massachusetts. METHODS: Eighty-three (83) participants were purposively selected for an in-depth, open-ended interview related to oral health. RESULTS: Older individuals associated use of the stick brush with the Islamic practice of cleansing before prayer. When unable to find stick brushes in the U.S., many adopted the Western toothbrush.
BACKGROUND: Studies suggest cardioprotective benefits of dark chocolate containing cocoa. OBJECTIVE: This study examines the acute effects of solid dark chocolate and liquid cocoa intake on endothelial function and blood pressure in overweight adults. DESIGN: Randomized, placebo-controlled, single-blind crossover trial of 45 healthy adults [mean age: 53 y; mean body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 30]. In phase 1, subjects were randomly assigned to consume a solid dark chocolate bar (containing 22 g cocoa powder) or a cocoa-free placebo bar (containing 0 g cocoa powder).
Our laboratory has investigated 2 hypotheses regarding the effects of fructose consumption: 1) the endocrine effects of fructose consumption favor a positive energy balance, and 2) fructose consumption promotes the development of an atherogenic lipid profile. In previous short- and long-term studies, we showed that consumption of fructose-sweetened beverages with 3 meals results in lower 24-h plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, and leptin in humans than does consumption of glucose-sweetened beverages.
Studies in animals have documented that, compared with glucose, dietary fructose induces dyslipidemia and insulin resistance. To assess the relative effects of these dietary sugars during sustained consumption in humans, overweight and obese subjects consumed glucose- or fructose-sweetened beverages providing 25% of energy requirements for 10 weeks. Although both groups exhibited similar weight gain during the intervention, visceral adipose volume was significantly increased only in subjects consuming fructose.
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The results of short-term studies in humans suggest that, compared with glucose, acute consumption of fructose leads to increased postprandial energy expenditure and carbohydrate oxidation and decreased postprandial fat oxidation. The objective of this study was to determine the potential effects of increased fructose consumption compared with isocaloric glucose consumption on substrate utilization and energy expenditure following sustained consumption and under energy-balanced conditions.
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The study of intrinsic fluctuations in the blood oxygen level-dependent signal of functional magnetic resonance imaging can provide insight into the effect of physiologic states on brain processes. In an effort to better understand the brain-gut communication induced by the absorption and metabolism of nutrients in healthy lean and obese individuals, we investigated whether ingestion of nutritive and non-nutritive sweetened beverages differentially engages the hypothalamus and brainstem vagal pathways in lean and obese women.
Preliminary data in the literature indicate that iron absorption from a meal may be increased when consumed with low-pH beverages such as cola, and it is also possible that sugar iron complexes may alter iron availability. A randomized, crossover trial was conducted to compare the bioavailability of nonheme iron from a vegetarian pizza meal when consumed with 3 different beverages (cola, diet cola, and mineral water). Sixteen women with serum ferritin concentrations of 11-54 µg/L were recruited and completed the study.