Diffusion Tensor Imaging

Publication Title: 
Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews

Numerous studies have begun to address how the brain's gray and white matter may be shaped by meditation. This research is yet to be integrated, however, and two fundamental questions remain: Is meditation associated with altered brain structure? If so, what is the magnitude of these differences? To address these questions, we reviewed and meta-analyzed 123 brain morphology differences from 21 neuroimaging studies examining ?300 meditation practitioners.

Author(s): 
Fox, Kieran C. R.
Nijeboer, Savannah
Dixon, Matthew L.
Floman, James L.
Ellamil, Melissa
Rumak, Samuel P.
Sedlmeier, Peter
Christoff, Kalina
Publication Title: 
Molecular Psychiatry

General intelligence is a robust predictor of important life outcomes, including educational and occupational attainment, successfully managing everyday life situations, good health and longevity. Some neuronal correlates of intelligence have been discovered, mainly indicating that larger cortices in widespread parieto-frontal brain networks and efficient neuronal information processing support higher intelligence. However, there is a lack of established associations between general intelligence and any basic structural brain parameters that have a clear functional meaning.

Author(s): 
Penke, L.
Maniega, S. MuÒoz
Bastin, M. E.
ValdÈs Hern·ndez, M. C.
Murray, C.
Royle, N. A.
Starr, J. M.
Wardlaw, J. M.
Deary, I. J.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Affective Disorders

Considerable evidence suggests a crucial role for the epigenetic regulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). However, the relationship between BDNF DNA methylation and white matter (WM) integrity in MDD has not yet been investigated. In the current study, we examined the association between the DNA methylation status of the BDNF promoter region and WM integrity in MDD.

Author(s): 
Choi, Sunyoung
Han, Kyu-Man
Won, Eunsoo
Yoon, Bong-June
Lee, Min-Soo
Ham, Byung-Joo
Publication Title: 
NMR in biomedicine

The song control system of songbirds displays a remarkable seasonal neuroplasticity in species in which song output also changes seasonally. Thus far, this song control system has been extensively analyzed by histological and electrophysiological methods. However, these approaches do not provide a global view of the brain and/or do not allow repeated measurements, which are necessary to establish causal correlations between alterations in neural substrate and behavior.

Author(s): 
De Groof, Geert
Van der Linden, Annemie
Publication Title: 
Archives of General Psychiatry

CONTEXT: Focused hypnotic concentration is a model for brain control over sensation and behavior. Pain and anxiety can be effectively alleviated by hypnotic suggestion, which modulates activity in brain regions associated with focused attention, but the specific neural network underlying this phenomenon is not known. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the brain basis of hypnotizability. DESIGN: Cross-sectional, in vivo neuroimaging study performed from November 2005 through July 2006. SETTING: Academic medical center at Stanford University School of Medicine.

Author(s): 
Hoeft, Fumiko
Gabrieli, John D. E.
Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan
Haas, Brian W.
Bammer, Roland
Menon, Vinod
Spiegel, David
Publication Title: 
NeuroImage

The Human Connectome Project (HCP) faces the challenging task of bringing multiple magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) modalities together in a common automated preprocessing framework across a large cohort of subjects. The MRI data acquired by the HCP differ in many ways from data acquired on conventional 3 Tesla scanners and often require newly developed preprocessing methods.

Author(s): 
Glasser, Matthew F.
Sotiropoulos, Stamatios N.
Wilson, J. Anthony
Coalson, Timothy S.
Fischl, Bruce
Andersson, Jesper L.
Xu, Junqian
Jbabdi, Saad
Webster, Matthew
Polimeni, Jonathan R.
Van Essen, David C.
Jenkinson, Mark
WU-Minn HCP Consortium
Publication Title: 
PloS One

INTRODUCTION: This work aimed to determine whether (1)H magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) are correlated with years of meditation and psychological variables in long-term Zen meditators compared to healthy non-meditator controls. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Design. Controlled, cross-sectional study. Sample. Meditators were recruited from a Zen Buddhist monastery. The control group was recruited from hospital staff.

Author(s): 
Fayed, Nicolás
Lopez Del Hoyo, Yolanda
Andres, Eva
Serrano-Blanco, Antoni
Bellón, Juan
Aguilar, Keyla
Cebolla, Ausiàs
García-Campayo, Javier
Publication Title: 
Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine (New York, N.Y.)

OBJECTIVE: One aim of this study was to investigate the effects of acupuncture on cerebral function of patients with acute cerebral infarction. Another goal was to evaluate the relationship between acupuncture treatment and motor recovery patients with stroke and to provide a foundation for using acupuncture therapy for such patients. DESIGN: Twenty (20) patients with recent cerebral infarction were divided randomly to an acupuncture group and a control group. The infarction area in each patient was in the basal ganglia or included the basal ganglia with an area size of > 1 cm(2).

Author(s): 
Shen, Yunxia
Li, Ming
Wei, Ruipeng
Lou, Mingwu
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