The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
We have analyzed artemisinin sensitivity in Plasmodium falciparum isolates obtained from patients in South Vietnam and show that artemisinin sensitivity does not differ before and after drug treatment. There was an increase in the level of mefloquine resistance in the isolates after drug treatment that was concomitant with a decrease in chloroquine resistance, suggesting that treatment with artemisinin has selected for increased mefloquine resistance. Mutations in the pfmdr1 gene, previously shown to be associated with sensitivity to mefloquine, were selected against.
Combination antimalarial therapy may delay the spread of drug resistance, but clinical data supporting this notion are limited. For 1 year, we studied Ugandan children who were treated for uncomplicated malaria with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP), SP + amodiaquine (AQ), or SP + artesunate (AS). We compared treatment responses and the prevalence of resistance-conferring mutations of new infections with those of recrudescent infections due to parasites that survived prior treatment.
In Congo, urgent efforts are needed to help with the revision of the national antimalarial drug policy. Despite its high resistance level, chloroquine (CQ) is still extensively used as the first-line treatment for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria. The study was conducted in children under 5 years with uncomplicated malaria in Pointe-Noire and Brazzaville, the two largest cities that contain approximately 60% of the population of Congo.
BACKGROUND: In Tanzania, drug-resistant malaria parasites are an increasing public health concern. Because of widespread chloroquine (CQ) resistance Tanzania changed its first line treatment recommendations for uncomplicated malaria from CQ to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) in 2001. Loss of SP sensitivity is progressing rapidly. SP resistance is associated with mutations in the dihydrofolate reductase (pfdhfr) and dihydropteroate synthase (pfdhps) genes.
BACKGROUND: Plasmodium falciparum is the predominant human malaria species in Mozambique and a lead cause of mortality among children and pregnant women nationwide. Sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine (S/P) is used as first line antimalarial treatment as a partner drug in combination with artesunate. METHODS: A total of 92 P.
BACKGROUND: In the last five years, countries have been faced with changing their malaria treatment policy to an artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT), many with no national data on which to base their decision. This is particularly true for a number of West African countries, including Guinea, where these studies were performed. Two studies were conducted in 2004/2005 in programmes supported by Medecins Sans Frontieres, when chloroquine was still national policy, but artesunate (AS)/sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) had been used in refugee camps for two years.
BACKGROUND: In Gabon, following the adoption of amodiaquine/artesunate combination (AQ/AS) as first-line treatment of malaria and of sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine (SP) for preventive intermittent treatment of pregnant women, a clinical trial of SP versus AQ was conducted in a sub-urban area. This is the first study carried out in Gabon following the WHO guidelines.
BACKGROUND: Sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine has been abandoned as first- or second-line treatment by most African malaria endemic countries in favour of artemisinin-based combination treatments, but the drug is still used as intermittent preventive treatment during pregnancy. However, resistance to sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine has been increasing in the past few years and, although the link between molecular markers and treatment failure has not been firmly established, at least for pregnant women, it is important to monitor such markers.
BACKGROUND: In late 2002, the health authorities of Mozambique implemented sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP)/amodiaquine (AQ) as first-line treatment against uncomplicated falciparum malaria. In 2004, this has been altered to SP/artesunate in line with WHO recommendations of using Artemisinin Combination Therapies (ACTs), despite the fact that all the neighbouring countries have abandoned SP-drug combinations due to high levels of SP drug resistance. In the study area, one year prior to the change to SP/AQ, SP alone was used to treat uncomplicated malaria cases.
BACKGROUND: Malaria is the infectious disease causing the highest morbidity and mortality in Angola and due to widespread chloroquine (CQ) resistance, the country has recently changed its first-line treatment recommendations for uncomplicated malaria, from CQ to artemisinin combination therapies (ACT) in adults, and sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine (S/P) in pregnant women. Loss of SP sensitivity is, however, progressing rapidly in Africa and, in this study, were investigated a number of molecular markers associated to CQ and S/P.