The ribonucleoprotein (RNP) enzyme telomerase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae adds telomeric DNA to chromosomal ends in short increments both in vivo and in vitro. Whether or not telomerase functions as a multimer has not been addressed previously. Here we show, first, that following polymerization, the telomerase RNP remains stably bound to its telomeric oligonucleotide reaction product. We then exploit this finding and a previously reported mutant telomerase RNA to demonstrate that, unexpectedly, the S.
The integral RNA (hTER) of the human telomerase ribonucleoprotein has a conserved secondary structure that contains a potential pseudoknot. Here we examine the role of an intermolecular hTER-hTER interaction in the previously reported functional dimerization of telomerase. We provide evidence that the two conserved, complementary sequences of one stem of the hTER pseudoknot domain can pair intermolecularly in vitro, and that formation of this stem as part of a novel "trans-pseudoknot" is required for telomerase to be active in its dimeric form.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Telomeres are specialized DNA/protein complexes that comprise the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes. The highly expressed Ku heterodimer, composed of 70 and 80 K(d) subunits (Ku70 and Ku80), is the high-affinity DNA binding component of the DNA-dependent protein kinase. Ku is critical for nonhomologous DNA double-stranded break repair and site-specific recombination of V(D)J gene segments. Ku also plays an important role in telomere maintenance in yeast.
Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and resonance Raman (RR) spectroscopies have been employed to investigate the reductive cleavage of the O-O bond of the endoperoxide moiety of the antimalarial drug artemisinin and its analog trioxane alcohol by hemin dimer. We have recorded FTIR spectra in the nu(O-O) and nu(as)(Fe-O-Fe) regions of artemisinin and of the hemin dimer that show the cleavage of the endoperoxide and that of the hemin dimer, respectively. We observed similar results in the trioxane alcohol/hemin dimer reaction.
Protein Science: A Publication of the Protein Society
Glutathione S-transferase of the malarial parasite Plasmodium falciparum (PfGST) represents a novel class of GST isoenzymes. Since the architecture of the PfGST substrate binding site differs significantly from its human counterparts and there is only this one isoenzyme present in the parasite, PfGST is considered a highly attractive target for antimalarial drug development. Here we report the mechanistic, kinetic, and structural characterization of PfGST as well as its interaction with different ligands.
International Journal of Cancer. Journal International Du Cancer
Analogs of the malaria therapeutic, artemisinin, possess in vitro and in vivo anticancer activity. In this study, two dimeric artemisinins (NSC724910 and 735847) were studied to determine their mechanism of action. Dimers were >1,000 fold more active than monomer and treatment was associated with increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and apoptosis induction. Dimer activity was inhibited by the antioxidant L-NAC, the iron chelator desferroxamine and exogenous hemin.
In only five simple steps and 48% overall yield from the natural trioxane artemisinin, the thermally and hydrolytically stable trioxane fluoroanilide 4b has been prepared. Upon one oral dose of only 6.8 mg/kg of monomeric trioxane 4b combined with 20 mg/kg of mefloquine hydrochloride, all of the malaria-infected mice lived until at least day 30 post infection. Of the five mice in this surviving group, four (80%) were completely cured (no parasites in their blood) and one mouse had 4% blood parasitemia.
Nine dihydroartemisinin acetal dimers (6-14) with diversely functionalized linker units were synthesized and tested for in vitro antiprotozoal, anticancer and antimicrobial activity. Compounds 6, 7 and 11 [IC(50): 3.0-6.7 nM (D6) and 4.2-5.9 nM (W2)] were appreciably more active than artemisinin (1) [IC(50): 32.9 nM (D6) and 42.5 nM (W2)] against the chloroquine-sensitive (D6) and chloroquine-resistant (W2) strains of the malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum.
Artemisinin is a plant-derived anti-malarial drug that has relatively low toxicity in humans and is activated by heme and/or intracellular iron leading to intracellular free radical formation. Interestingly, artemisinin has displayed anti-cancer activity, with artemisinin dimers being more potent than monomeric artemisinin. Intracellular iron uptake is regulated by the transferrin receptor (TfR), and the activity of artemisinin depends on the availability of iron.
Malaria continues to be a difficult disease to eradicate largely because of the widespread populations it affects and the resistance that malaria parasites have developed against once very potent therapies. The natural product artemisinin has been a boon for antimalarial chemotherapy, as artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) has become the first line of chemotherapy.