Dinoprostone

Publication Title: 
BMC complementary and alternative medicine

BACKGROUND: The fruit of the Terminalia chebula tree has been widely used for the treatment of various disorders. Its anti-diabetic, anti-mutagenic, anti-oxidant, anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, and anti-viral effects have been studied. Dental plaque bacteria (DPB) are intimately associated with gingivitis and periodontitis. In the quest for materials that will prove useful in the treatment and prevention of periodontal disease, we investigated the preventive effects of an ethanol extract of Terminalia chebula (EETC) on DPB-induced inflammation and bone resorption.

Author(s): 
Lee, Jongsung
Nho, Youn Hwa
Yun, Seok Kyun
Hwang, Young Sun
Publication Title: 
Aruk?ru Kenky? to Yakubutsu Izon = Japanese Journal of Alcohol Studies & Drug Dependence

It is known that prostaglandin synthetase inhibitors (PGSI) inhibit ethanol (EtOH)-induced sleep in mice, and that EtOH increases production of prostaglandins (PGs). EtOH hypnosis and effects of prostaglandins on EtOH-induced sleeping in inbred rats were examined. The EtOH (3 g/kg, i.p.)-induced sleep time was significantly longer in Fischer 344 (F344) than in Lewis (LEW); blood EtOH concentrations (BAC) on awaking were significantly lower in F344 than in LEW.

Author(s): 
Suzuki, T.
Shiozaki, Y.
Misawa, M.
Publication Title: 
Medical Hypotheses

Oxygenation of arachidonic acid is increased in inflamed tissues. In this condition products of two enzymic pathways--the cyclooxygenase and the 5-lipoxygenase producing respectively prostaglandins and leukotrienes--are elevated. Of the cyclooxygenase products, PGE2 and of the lipoxygenase products, LTB4 are the strongest candidates for mediating inflammation. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs which inhibit the cyclooxygenase, and corticosteroids are used to treat such disorders. Both types of drugs produce adverse side-effects on prolonged use.

Author(s): 
Srivastava, K. C.
Mustafa, T.
Publication Title: 
Cancer Research

Scutellaria baicalensis is a widely used Chinese herbal medicine that has been used historically in anti-inflammatory and anticancer therapy. The purpose of this study is to verify its anticancer activity on head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) in vitro and in vivo and to investigate its effect on cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), which converts arachidonic acid to prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) and is highly expressed in HNSCC.

Author(s): 
Zhang, David Y.
Wu, Josephine
Ye, Fei
Xue, Li
Jiang, Shiquan
Yi, Jizu
Zhang, Wandi
Wei, Huachen
Sung, Max
Wang, Wayne
Li, Xiaoping
Publication Title: 
Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research

PURPOSE: To determine whether altering the dietary content of omega-6 (n-6) and omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids affects the growth of androgen-sensitive prostate cancer xenografts, tumor membrane fatty acid composition, and tumor cyclooxygenase-2 and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) levels. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Individually caged male severe combined immunodeficiency mice were fed isocaloric 20% kcal fat diets with the fat derived either primarily from n-6 fatty acids (n-6 group) or with the fat consisting of n-6 and n-3 fatty acids in a ratio of 1:1 (n-3 group), and injected s.c.

Author(s): 
Kobayashi, Naoko
Barnard, R. James
Henning, Susanne M.
Elashoff, David
Reddy, Srinivasa T.
Cohen, Pinchas
Leung, Pak
Hong-Gonzalez, Jenny
Freedland, Stephen J.
Said, Jonathan
Gui, Dorina
Seeram, Navindra P.
Popoviciu, Laura M.
Bagga, Dilprit
Heber, David
Glaspy, John A.
Aronson, William J.
Publication Title: 
Arthritis and Rheumatism

OBJECTIVE: Scientific evidence is lacking for the antiarthritic efficacy of turmeric dietary supplements that are being promoted for arthritis treatment. Therefore, we undertook studies to determine the antiarthritic efficacy and mechanism of action of a well-characterized turmeric extract using an animal model of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: The composition of commercial turmeric dietary supplements was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography.

Author(s): 
Funk, Janet L.
Frye, Jennifer B.
Oyarzo, Janice N.
Kuscuoglu, Nesrin
Wilson, Jonathan
McCaffrey, Gwen
Stafford, Gregory
Chen, Guanjie
Lantz, R. Clark
Jolad, Shivanand D.
Sólyom, Aniko M.
Kiela, Pawel R.
Timmermann, Barbara N.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry

Inhibition of prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) production in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 mouse macrophage cells was assessed with an enzyme immunoassay following treatments with Echinacea extracts or synthesized alkamides. Results indicated that ethanol extracts diluted in media to a concentration of 15 microg/mL from E. angustifolia, E. pallida, E. simulata, and E. sanguinea significantly inhibited PGE2 production.

Author(s): 
LaLone, Carlie A.
Hammer, Kimberly D. P.
Wu, Lankun
Bae, Jaehoon
Leyva, Norma
Liu, Yi
Solco, Avery K. S.
Kraus, George A.
Murphy, Patricia A.
Wurtele, Eve S.
Kim, Ok-Kyung
Seo, Kwon Ii
Widrlechner, Mark P.
Birt, Diane F.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry

Hypericum perforatum (Hp) is commonly known for its antiviral, antidepressant, and cytotoxic properties, but traditionally Hp was also used to treat inflammation. In this study, the anti-inflammatory activity and cytotoxicity of different Hp extractions and accessions and constituents present within Hp extracts were characterized. In contrast to the antiviral activity of Hp, the anti-inflammatory activity observed with all Hp extracts was light-independent.

Author(s): 
Hammer, Kimberly D. P.
Hillwig, Matthew L.
Solco, Avery K. S.
Dixon, Philip M.
Delate, Kathleen
Murphy, Patricia A.
Wurtele, Eve S.
Birt, Diane F.
Publication Title: 
Analytical Biochemistry

We report an improved liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) assay that accurately measures prostaglandins D(2) (PGD(2)) and E(2) (PGE(2)) in cell culture supernatants and other biological fluids. The limit of detection for each prostaglandin was 20 pg/ml (0.20 pg, 0.55 fmol on-column), and the interday and intraday coefficients of variation were less than 5%. Both d(4)-PGE(2) and d(4)-PGD(2) were used as surrogate standards to control for differential loss and degradation of the analytes.

Author(s): 
Cao, Hongmei
Xiao, Lei
Park, Gyeyoung
Wang, Xuerong
Azim, Anser C.
Christman, John W.
van Breemen, Richard B.
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Investigative Dermatology

IL-12 deficiency has been shown to promote photocarcinogenesis in mice. As UVB-induced inflammation is an important tumor-promoting event in the development of skin tumors, we determined the effects of IL-12-deficiency on UVB-induced inflammatory responses in mice. For this purpose, IL-12-knockout (IL-12 KO) and their wild-type counterparts were subjected to a photocarcinogenesis protocol; skin and tumor samples were collected at the termination of the experiment, and analyzed for biomarkers of inflammation and their mediators.

Author(s): 
Meeran, Syed M.
Punathil, Thejass
Katiyar, Santosh K.

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