BACKGROUND: Prenatal maternal stress (PNMS) predicts a wide variety of behavioral and physical outcomes in the offspring. Although epigenetic processes may be responsible for PNMS effects, human research is hampered by the lack of experimental methods that parallel controlled animal studies. Disasters, however, provide natural experiments that can provide models of prenatal stress. METHODS: Five months after the 1998 Quebec ice storm we recruited women who had been pregnant during the disaster and assessed their degrees of objective hardship and subjective distress.
Prenatal maternal stress (PNMS) can impact a variety of outcomes in the offspring throughout childhood and persisting into adulthood as shown in human and animal studies. Many of the effects of PNMS on offspring outcomes likely reflect the effects of epigenetic changes, such as DNA methylation, to the fetal genome.
Understanding posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in police first-responders is an underdeveloped field. Using a cross-sectional survey, this study investigated demographic and occupational characteristics, coping resources and processes, along with first-responder roles and consequences 18 months following a disaster. Hierarchical linear regression (N = 576) showed that greater symptom levels were significantly positively associated with negative emotional coping (? = .31), a communications role (? = .08) and distress following exposure to resource losses (?
The construct of resilience was examined in a South Asian community impacted by natural and human-made disasters. Forty-three Sinhala, Tamil, and Muslim Sri Lankans (27 women; age range 21-62 years) participated in 6 focus groups, conducted in either Sinhala or Tamil, to elicit participants' own ideas about components of resilience. Schema analysis of transcripts revealed that although some elements of resilience were common across ethnocultural groups, others differed by ethnic group. The differences appeared to be as much a function of type of trauma exposure as of culture.
AIDS education and prevention: official publication of the International Society for AIDS Education
Haitian women are twice as likely as men to have HIV/AIDs. Factors underlying the feminization of HIV are complex. Self-esteem is an important correlate of sexual behavior. However, its meaning and impact on health behaviors may be influenced by cultural factors. This qualitative study took place in Haiti 4 months after the 2010 earthquake and examines the meaning of self-esteem among young Haitian women seeking treatment for a recurrent sexually transmitted infection (STI).
Stress and Health: Journal of the International Society for the Investigation of Stress
Following Hurricane Katrina, police officers in the New Orleans geographic area faced a number of challenges. This cross-sectional study examined the association between resilience, satisfaction with life, gratitude, posttraumatic growth, and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder in 84 male and 30 female police officers from Louisiana. Protective factors were measured using the Connor-Davidson Resilience scale, Satisfaction with Life Scale, the Gratitude Questionnaire, and the Posttraumatic Growth inventory.
Journal of Healthcare Risk Management: The Journal of the American Society for Healthcare Risk Management
I've been on the road a bit this summer. Because of the kind generosity of my London broker, Lloyd and Partners, Ltd., I've been allowed the unique opportunity to have an insider's view of the London market. I observed an interesting renewal situation and sat with underwriters in their boxes amid the hallowed (at least to us insurance geeks) trappings of Lloyd's. I spent several lovely days in Hanover with my long-time lead reinsurer, Hanover Re, while trying desperately to keep up with my own work back home.
Medecine Tropicale: Revue Du Corps De Sante Colonial
The southeast Asian tsunami that caused massive death and destruction in December 2004 was met by an extraordinary outpouring of international generosity. Recovery work was initially slowed by a variety of problems including poor administrative organization, lack of coordination between partners, and legal impediments. However, it is now largely completed. UNICEF worked hard to ensure that available funds were used to "build back better".
Hugo, a class IV hurricane, hit South Carolina September 22, 1989, and left behind a wake of terror and destruction. Sixty-one nursing students and five faculty were involved in disaster relief with families devastated by the hurricane. A review of the literature led these authors to propose a formulation of the concept of disaster stress, a synthesis of theories that explains response to disaster as a crisis response, a stress response, or as posttraumatic stress.
Canadian students provided ratings of the degree of sympathy they felt for those involved in each of 20 world disasters. Playing the role of taxpayer, they also apportioned monies from a disaster relief fund to assist in such emergencies. A single dimension, Culpability, was found to underlie the sympathy ratings. Sympathy was related to giving aid only in the case of female subjects. Women also expressed greater sympathy and recommended more financial aid than did men.