Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
OBJECTIVE: This research investigates personality variables--aggression and disorders of conduct, depression, and separation anxiety--mediating suicidal behavior in psychiatrically hospitalized urban minority adolescents. METHOD: Four matched groups of 26 subjects (N = 104) participated: suicidal adolescents with, and suicidal adolescents without, a conduct disorder diagnosis, nonsuicidal adolescents with a conduct disorder diagnosis, and a nonpsychiatric control group.
OBJECTIVE: The OPRM1 gene was studied for DNA methylation in opioid dependence and possible paternal contribution to epigenetic inheritance of altered methylation profiles. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: DNA was extracted from blood and sperm from 13 male opioid addicts and 21 male control subjects. DNA methylation was determined by pyrosequencing in 24 CpG sites at the OPRM1 promoter region. RESULTS: The authors found significantly increased overall methylation in blood DNA from addicted subjects (Kruskal-Wallis [K-W] p = 0.013).
The miRBase-21 database currently lists 1881 microRNA (miRNA) precursors and 2585 unique mature human miRNAs. Since their discovery, miRNAs have proved to present a new level of epigenetic post-transcriptional control of protein synthesis. Initial results point to a possible involvement of miRNA in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We applied OpenArray technology to profile the expression of 1178 unique miRNAs in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples of AD patients (n = 22) and controls (n = 28).
Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynaecology
The relationship of depressive disorders with early parental losses and rearing experiences was studied among 120 pregnant women. They were diagnosed following the Research Diagnostic Criteria using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia. Loss experience was defined either as loss of a parent before the age of 16 by death, or separation for 12 months or longer. The perceived rearing experience was examined by administering the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI). An onset of depressive disorders, antenatal depression, was observed among 19 (16%) women.
The purpose of this study was to develop and validate the dimensions of caregiver reciprocity. Social exchange and equity theory served as a conceptual framework for examining recprocal intergenerational exchanges of assistance and support. In the first phase of the study, 12 caregivers of elderly parents, including in-laws, were interviewed to provide narrative data from which items were developed. Content validity was judged by two separate panels of experts.
Records of all 154 psychotic patients first admitted to a psychiatric hospital in 1925 were rated according to a checklist of 33 dichotomous items expected to characterize cycloid and schizoaffective psychosis; 64 cases satisfied 5 or more items. Among them, 34 were globally judged as cycloid and showed a favourable outcome when followed up. The remaining 30 cases were used as a contrast sample, consisting of schizoaffective psychotics with an unfavourable outcome and schizophrenics and affective patients who shared some symptoms with the experiment group.
Appealing to people's altruism may not be the best way to reach those who never donate blood. Rather, the authors found that several variables influence the decision, including whether or not people trust blood banks. Decreasing the perception that there are health risks associated with donating blood can also go a long way toward increasing the declining pool of blood donors.
The cerebral cortical correlates of the susceptibility to hypnosis in the ordinary states of consciousness have not been clarified. Aim of the study was to characterize the EEG dynamics of subjects with high (highs) and low hypnotisability (lows) through the non-linear method of Recurrence Quantification Analysis (RQA). The EEG of 16 males--8 highs and 8 lows--was monitored for 1min without instructions other than keeping the eyes closed, being silent and avoiding movements (short resting), and during 15 min of simple relaxation, that is with the instruction to relax at their best.
The study examined differences in gender stereotypes, restrained drinking and self-efficacy for alcohol refusal between moderate and high risk drinkers among a university sample of 301 women and 118 men. Both female and male high risk drinkers displayed a response conflict, typified by high scores on restrained drinking but low scores on self-efficacy. This pattern of response conflict was more pronounced for high risk drinking women, who also identified poorly with feminine traits (e.g. 'nurturing', 'love children', 'appreciative').
Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine (New York, N.Y.)
Participant-centered analysis involves applying the customary methods of statistical decision making at the level of the individual research participant. Consequently, each individual is declared a responder who benefited, a nonresponder, or possibly a responder who was harmed, using intensively collected data that were specific to that individual. There are several implications of the participant-centered approach. More data actually relevant to the important outcome need to be collected on individuals.