Discrimination Learning

Publication Title: 
Perceptual and Motor Skills

This study investigated the effect of various forms of smiling (closed smile, upper smile, or broad smile) on person perception. Brazilian undergraduates (N = 330) judged a photograph of a male or female stimulus person in three age ranges (young, middle-aged, and old) and smiling or not. 7-point scales were used to measure respondents' perception of the stimulus persons on various attributes (attractiveness, happiness, extroversion, sympathy, kindness, submission, ambition, and intelligence).

Author(s): 
Otta, E.
Folladore Abrosio, F.
Hoshino, R. L.
Publication Title: 
Perceptual and Motor Skills

This study investigated the effect of various forms of smiling (closed smile, upper smile, or broad smile) on person perception. Brazilian undergraduates (N = 330) judged a photograph of a male or female stimulus person in three age ranges (young, middle-aged, and old) and smiling or not. 7-point scales were used to measure respondents' perception of the stimulus persons on various attributes (attractiveness, happiness, extroversion, sympathy, kindness, submission, ambition, and intelligence).

Author(s): 
Otta, E.
Folladore Abrosio, F.
Hoshino, R. L.
Publication Title: 
Infant Behavior & Development

The current study examined how 18-month-old infants react to a "stoic" person, that is, someone who displays a neutral facial expression following negative experiences. Infants first watched a series of events during which an actor had an object stolen from her. In one condition, infants then saw the actor display sadness, while she remained neutral in the other condition. Then, all infants interacted with the actor in emotional referencing, instrumental helping, empathic helping, and imitation tasks.

Author(s): 
Chiarella, Sabrina S.
Poulin-Dubois, Diane
Publication Title: 
The American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis
Author(s): 
Harvey, M. A.
Sipprelle, C. N.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology

Two experiments used signal detection procedures to assess the effects of hypnotic susceptibility, a hypnotic induction procedure, and suggestions for altering auditory acuity on measures of sensitivity and response bias. In Experiment 1, low susceptibles showed higher sensitivity than high susceptibles, and hypnotic induction failed to affect the sensitivity of either highs or lows. Among the high susceptibles, suggestions to either increase or decrease acuity produced increments in sensitivity and reduced individual differences.

Author(s): 
Jones, B.
Spanos, N. P.
Publication Title: 
Perceptual and Motor Skills

13 hypnotically susceptible subjects were given a hypnotic induction procedure with suggestions to facilitate recognition of a target face shown 7 days earlier. Their accuracy was compared with that of 12 subjects in an untreated control condition. There was no support for the hypothesis that hypnosis improves facial recognition; indeed, there was evidence that hypnosis may serve to increase the number of false positive identifications.

Author(s): 
Wagstaff, G. F.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Experimental Psychology. General

To investigate the hypothesis that hypnosis has an enhancing effect on imagery processing, as mediated by hypnotic responsiveness and cognitive strategies, four experiments compared performance of low and high, or low, medium, and high, hypnotically responsive subjects in waking and hypnosis conditions on a successive visual memory discrimination task that required detecting differences between successively presented picture pairs in which one member of the pair was slightly altered.

Author(s): 
Crawford, H. J.
Allen, S. N.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Abnormal Psychology

We tested a hypothesis from parallel distributed processing theory that highly hypnotizable subjects have greater connection strengths along verbal pathways and would show greater Stroop effects than low hypnotizable subjects. Using Cheesman & Merikle's (1986) paradigm, which varied cue visibility and probability, we assessed automatic and strategic effects on Stroop performance. Compared with 9 low and 9 moderately hypnotizable subjects, 9 highly hypnotizable ones showed significantly greater Stroop effects for both visible- and degraded-word trials.

Author(s): 
Dixon, M.
Brunet, A.
Laurence, J. R.
Publication Title: 
Archives of General Psychiatry

BACKGROUND: Hypnosis has been used clinically for hundreds of years and is primarily a phenomenon involving attentive receptive concentration. Cognitive science has not fully exploited hypnosis and hypnotic suggestion as experimental tools. This study was designed to determine whether a hypnotic suggestion to hinder lexical processing could modulate the Stroop effect. METHODS: Behavioral Stroop data were collected from 16 highly suggestible and 16 less suggestible subjects; both naturally vigilant and under posthypnotic suggestion.

Author(s): 
Raz, Amir
Shapiro, Theodore
Fan, Jin
Posner, Michael I.
Publication Title: 
Psychopharmacology

RATIONALE: A recent in-vitro study demonstrated that the potent disulfide reducing agent, DL-dithiothreitol (DTT), may alter the structural stability of the GABA(B) receptor, probably inactivating the disulfide bonds between four cysteine residues located in the GABA(B1(a)) receptor structure. OBJECTIVES: The present study was designed to evaluate whether DTT treatment was capable of antagonizing some behavioral effects of pharmacological stimulation of the GABA(B) receptor.

Author(s): 
Carai, Mauro A. M.
Vacca, Giovanni
Serra, Salvatore
Colombo, Giancarlo
Froestl, Wolfgang
Gessa, Gian Luigi

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