Disease Outbreaks

Publication Title: 
Journal of Advanced Nursing

BACKGROUND: Diabetes constitutes a global public health problem. Today about 135 million people are affected and it is estimated that the number in 2025 will be 300 million. AIMS: By reviewing existing literature the aim is to raise awareness among nurses, nurse educators and nursing students of the global epidemic of diabetes mellitus, its multiple underlying causes, especially social ones, and how to fight it. A further aim is to discuss the implications for future curriculum content in nurse education programmes.

Author(s): 
Hjelm, Katarina
Mufunda, Esther
Nambozi, Grace
Kemp, Joan
Publication Title: 
Le Infezioni in Medicina: Rivista Periodica Di Eziologia, Epidemiologia, Diagnostica, Clinica E Terapia Delle Patologie Infettive

The author presents the history of the places where patients with epidemic pathologies were isolated. Since the study of medicine began, such places have been known as asclepiei, xenodochi, hospices, lazarettos, sanitary cordons, and quarantine stations and they contributed to controlling epidemics in Europe. Important not only in the context in which they were created, these structures expressed the medical culture and point of view of that age.

Author(s): 
Sabbatani, Sergio
Publication Title: 
Orvostorteneti Kozlemenyek

Author attempted to collect all available medical data of the period of the reign of Mathias Corvinus (1443-1490) who ruled Hungary for 32 years. First part of this article outlines the general medical history of this era. In the 15th century the flourishing Kingdom of Hungary was inhabited by 3-3.2 million people. Under the rule of King Matthias epidemies were frequent visitors, plague e.g. was registered 11 times, while sudor anglicus once (in 1485). The ca. 120 hospitals of the era were founded mostly in towns and market-towns.

Author(s): 
Varjassy, PÈter
Publication Title: 
Communicable Diseases Intelligence Quarterly Report

This report describes a respiratory illness outbreak amongst a group of over 700 World Youth Day 2008 pilgrims staying at a basic accommodation venue for 1 week in July 2008. At this venue, 1 group of pilgrims was accommodated as a large group in a gymnasium and another group was sub-divided into smaller groups and accommodated in classrooms. Following confirmation of an influenza B outbreak by influenza point of care testing, control measures were promptly implemented.

Author(s): 
Staff, Michael
Torres, Maria I.
Publication Title: 
La Medicina Del Lavoro

Similarly to Daniele Pometta (1869-1949) on the northern front, Giuseppe Volante (1870-1936) from Turin, a valid clinician and hygiene expert was the field doctor for the firm of Brandt, Brandau e C., on the southern part of the Simplon tunnel for the whole period of its excavation (1898-1906). He meticulously organised and carried out with determination the main mission entrusted him which was to prevent the hookworm epidemic which a mere twenty years earlier had cast its shadow over the St. Gotthard tunnel.

Author(s): 
Volante, G.
Publication Title: 
MMWR supplements

The need for enhanced biologic surveillance has led to the search for new sources of data. Beginning in September 2001, Emergency Medical Associates (EMA) of New Jersey, an emergency physician group practice, undertook a series of surveillance projects in collaboration with state and federal agencies. This paper examines EMA's motivations and concerns and discusses the collaborative opportunities available to data suppliers for syndromic surveillance.

Author(s): 
Cochrane, Dennis G.
Publication Title: 
Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne De Psychiatrie

OBJECTIVE: We examined the psychological impact of the 2003 outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) on hospital employees in Beijing, China. METHODS: In 2006, randomly selected employees (n = 549) of a hospital in Beijing were surveyed concerning their exposure to the 2003 SARS outbreak, and the ways in which the outbreak had affected their mental health. RESULTS: About 10% of the respondents had experienced high levels of posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms since the SARS outbreak.

Author(s): 
Wu, Ping
Fang, Yunyun
Guan, Zhiqiang
Fan, Bin
Kong, Junhui
Yao, Zhongling
Liu, Xinhua
Fuller, Cordelia J.
Susser, Ezra
Lu, Jin
Hoven, Christina W.
Publication Title: 
Bulletin of the World Health Organization

The serious threat posed by the spread of drug-resistant malaria in Africa has been widely acknowledged. Chloroquine resistance is now almost universal, and resistance to the successor drug, sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP), is growing rapidly. Combination therapy has been suggested as being an available and potentially lasting solution to this impending crisis. However, the current cost of combination therapy, and especially that of artemisinin combination therapy (ACT), is potentially a serious drawback, even if a significant part of its cost is passed on to the end-user.

Author(s): 
Whitty, Christopher J. M.
Allan, Richard
Wiseman, Virginia
Ochola, Sam
Nakyanzi-Mugisha, Maria Veronicah
Vonhm, Benjamin
Mwita, Mahemba
Miaka, Constantin
Oloo, Aggrey
Premji, Zul
Burgess, Craig
Mutabingwa, Theonest K.
Publication Title: 
Tropical medicine & international health: TM & IH

OBJECTIVE: To compare the cost-effectiveness of malaria treatment based on presumptive diagnosis with that of malaria treatment based on rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs). METHODS: We calculated direct costs (based on experience from Ethiopia and southern Sudan) and effectiveness (in terms of reduced over-treatment) of a free, decentralised treatment programme using artesunate plus amodiaquine (AS + AQ) or artemether-lumefantrine (ART-LUM) in a Plasmodium falciparum epidemic. Our main cost-effectiveness measure was the incremental cost per false positive treatment averted by RDTs.

Author(s): 
Rolland, Estelle
Checchi, Francesco
Pinoges, Loretxu
Balkan, Suna
Guthmann, Jean-Paul
Guerin, Philippe J.
Publication Title: 
World Health Statistics Quarterly. Rapport Trimestriel De Statistiques Sanitaires Mondiales

South and South-East Asia are at the centre of the most aggressive advances of the AIDS epidemic today. The challenge this presents to the region is clear. While reported absolute numbers still lag behind the African region (11,160,900 in Africa; 3,081,235 in Asia) knowledgeable observers agree that the place of infection and potential devastation in this region exceed what we have seen in Africa.

Author(s): 
Mboi, N.

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