Disease Transmission, Infectious

Publication Title: 
Trials

BACKGROUND: Couples-based HIV counseling and testing (CHCT) is a proven strategy to reduce the risk of HIV transmission between partners, but uptake of CHCT is low. We describe the study design of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) aimed to increase participation in CHCT and reduce sexual risk behavior for HIV among heterosexual couples in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. We hypothesize that the rate of participation in CHCT will be higher and sexual risk behavior will be lower in the intervention group as compared to the control.

Author(s): 
Darbes, Lynae A.
van Rooyen, Heidi
Hosegood, Victoria
Ngubane, Thulani
Johnson, Mallory O.
Fritz, Katherine
McGrath, Nuala
Publication Title: 
Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes (1999)

BACKGROUND: Combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV-1-infected individuals prevents sexual transmission if viral load is suppressed. METHODS: Participants were HIV-1-infected partners randomized to early ART (CD4 350-550) in HPTN052 (n = 886, median follow-up = 2.1 years), a clinical trial of early ART to prevent sexual transmission of HIV-1 in serodiscordant couples at 13 sites in 9 countries. Adherence was assessed through pill count (dichotomized at <95%) and through self-report items.

Author(s): 
Safren, Steven A.
Mayer, Kenneth H.
Ou, San-San
McCauley, Marybeth
Grinsztejn, Beatriz
Hosseinipour, Mina C.
Kumarasamy, Nagalingeswaran
Gamble, Theresa
Hoffman, Irving
Celentano, David
Chen, Ying Qing
Cohen, Myron S.
HPTN 052 Study Team
Publication Title: 
Tropical medicine & international health: TM & IH

As part of a study to assess the infectivity of gametocytes after treatment with four antimalarial regimens, the efficacy of each treatment was also determined. From September to December 1998, 598 children with uncomplicated malaria were treated; 135 received chloroquine (CQ) alone, 276 received pyrimethamine/sulfadoxine (Fansidar, PSD) alone, 113 received PSD with a single dose of artesunate (PSD + 1ART) and 74 received PSD combined with three doses of artesunate (PSD + 3ART). On day 28 19/63 (30.2%; 95% C.I. 19.2% to 43.1%) of children treated with CQ alone, 5/134 (3.7%; 95% C.I.

Author(s): 
von Seidlein, L.
Jawara, M.
Coleman, R.
Doherty, T.
Walraven, G.
Targett, G.
Publication Title: 
Acta Tropica

Malaria remains one of the leading health problems of the developing world, and Uganda bears a particularly large burden from the disease. Our understanding is limited by a lack of reliable data, but it is clear that the prevalence of malaria infection, incidence of disease, and mortality from severe malaria all remain very high.

Author(s): 
Yeka, Adoke
Gasasira, Anne
Mpimbaza, Arthur
Achan, Jane
Nankabirwa, Joaniter
Nsobya, Sam
Staedke, Sarah G.
Donnelly, Martin J.
Wabwire-Mangen, Fred
Talisuna, Ambrose
Dorsey, Grant
Kamya, Moses R.
Rosenthal, Philip J.
Publication Title: 
Malaria Journal

BACKGROUND: Reliable information on mobility patterns of migrants is a crucial part of the strategy to contain the spread of artemisinin-resistant malaria parasites in South-East Asia, and may also be helpful to efforts to address other public health problems for migrants and members of host communities. In order to limit the spread of malarial drug resistance, the malaria prevention and control programme will need to devise strategies to reach cross-border and mobile migrant populations.

Author(s): 
Khamsiriwatchara, Amnat
Wangroongsarb, Piyaporn
Thwing, Julie
Eliades, James
Satimai, Wichai
Delacollette, Charles
Kaewkungwal, Jaranit
Publication Title: 
Clinical Microbiology and Infection: The Official Publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases

With declining transmission of malaria in several regions of the world and renewed interest in the elimination of malaria, strategies for malaria control using antimalarial drugs are being revisited. Drug-based strategies to reduce transmission of malaria need to target the asymptomatic carriers of infection. Drugs that are effective against gametocytes are few in number, but it may be possible to reduce gametocyte production by killing the asexual stages, for which more drugs are available. Drugs for use in large-scale programmes must be safe and tolerable.

Author(s): 
Gosling, R. D.
Okell, L.
Mosha, J.
Chandramohan, D.
Publication Title: 
Acta Tropica

The study sites for the West African ICEMR are in three countries (The Gambia, Senegal, Mali) and are located within 750 km of each other. In addition, the National Malaria Control Programmes of these countries have virtually identical policies: (1) Artemisinin Combination Therapies (ACTs) for the treatment of symptomatic Plasmodium falciparum infection, (2) Long-Lasting Insecticide-treated bed Nets (LLINs) to reduce the Entomololgic Inoculation Rate (EIR), and (3) sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine for the Intermittent Preventive Treatment of malaria during pregnancy (IPTp).

Author(s): 
Ceesay, Serign J.
Bojang, Kalifa A.
Nwakanma, Davis
Conway, David J.
Koita, Ousmane A.
Doumbia, Seydou O.
Ndiaye, Daouda
Coulibaly, Tinzana F.
Diakite, Mahamadou
Traoré, Sekou F.
Coulibaly, Mamadou
Ndiaye, Jean-Louis
Sarr, Ousmane
Gaye, Oumar
Konaté, Lassana
Sy, Ngayo
Faye, Babacar
Faye, Ousmane
Sogoba, Nafomon
Jawara, Musa
Dao, Adama
Poudiougou, Belco
Diawara, Sory
Okebe, Joseph
Sangaré, Lansana
Abubakar, Ismaela
Sissako, Aliou
Diarra, Ayouba
Keita, Moussa
Kandeh, Balla
Long, Carole A.
Fairhurst, Rick M.
Duraisingh, Manoj
Perry, Robert
Muskavitch, Marc A. T.
Valim, Clarissa
Volkman, Sarah K.
Wirth, Dyann F.
Krogstad, Donald J.
Publication Title: 
Malaria Journal

BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to implement a rapid assessment of the performance of four malaria control strategies (indoor spraying, insecticide-treated bed nets, timely diagnosis, and artemisinin-based combination therapy) using adequacy criteria. The assessment was carried out in five countries of the Amazon subregion (Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, and Peru).

Author(s): 
Flores, Walter
Chang, Jaime
Barillas, Edgar
Publication Title: 
Human & Experimental Toxicology

Is hormesis related to homeopathy? Despite the superficial similarity of the low dose of the applied stimulus, there are compelling reasons for maintaining hormesis and homeopathy as unrelated. Homeopathy originated in the medical knowledge vacuum of the 19th century, prior to the acceptance of the germ/gene bases of disease. Homeopathy was never grounded on empirical scientific evidence. Hormesis, on the other hand, has always been an empirical science, involving properly controlled experiments.

Author(s): 
Moffett, John R.
Publication Title: 
AIDS policy & law
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