Our seminal discovery of high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) as a late mediator of lethal systemic inflammation has prompted a new field of investigation for the development of experimental therapeutics. We previously reported that a major Danshen ingredient, tanshinone IIA sodium sulfonate (TSN-SS), selectively inhibited endotoxin-induced HMGB1 release and conferred protection against lethal endotoxemia and sepsis.
Euphorbia species are widely distributed plants, many of which are used in folk medicine. Over the past twenty years, they have received considerable phytochemical and biological attention. Their diterpenoid constituents, especially those with abietane, tigliane, ingenane skeletons, are thought to be the main toxicant and bioactive factors. In this work, the utility of (13)C-NMR spectroscopy for the structural elucidation of these compounds is briefly discussed.
The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), the most relevant eicosanoid promoting inflammation and tumorigenesis, is formed by cyclooxygenases (COXs) and PGE(2) synthases from free arachidonic acid. Preparations of the leaves of Salvia officinalis are commonly used in folk medicine as an effective antiseptic and anti-inflammatory remedy and possess anticancer activity. Here, we demonstrate that a standard ethyl acetate extract of S. officinalis efficiently suppresses the formation of PGE(2) in a cell-free assay by direct interference with microsomal PGE(2) synthase (mPGES)-1.
Atherosclerosis is a chronic and progressive inflammatory disease. Novel anti-inflammatory therapies may have promise as treatment strategies for cardiovascular risk reduction. Rosemary (Rosemarinus officinalis L.) has been used in folk medicine to treat headaches, epilepsy, poor circulation, and many other ailments. It was found that rosemary could act as a stimulant and mild analgesic and could reduce inflammation. However, the mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory and antiatherosclerotic effects of rosemary need more study.
Drug Metabolism and Disposition: The Biological Fate of Chemicals
Carnosic acid is a phenolic diterpene isolated from rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), which may have anticancer, antiadipogenic, and anti-inflammatory properties. Recently, carnosic acid was shown to prevent weight gain and hepatic steatosis in a mouse model of obesity and type II diabetes. Based on these results, carnosic acid has been suggested as a potential treatment for obesity and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease; however, little is known about the safety of carnosic acid at doses needed to elicit a pharmacological effect.
Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
Enhanced anticoagulation and/or even bleeding are often observed when patients on long-term warfarin (WAR) therapy consumed Danshen, a well-known medicinal herb in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). This study demonstrates that altered WAR metabolism, arising from its interaction with the active components in Danshen, played a significant role in this curative effect. Mass spectrometric techniques including ESI-ITMS (electrospray ionization ion-trap mass spectrometry) and ESI-TOF (time-of-flight)-MS have been developed for the study of such drug-herb interactions.
Tanshinones are the major bioactive compounds of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge (Danshen) roots, which are used in many therapeutic remedies in Chinese traditional medicine. We investigated the anticancer effects of tanshinones on the highly invasive human lung adenocarcinoma cell line, CL1-5. Tanshinone I significantly inhibited migration, invasion, and gelatinase activity in macrophage-conditioned medium-stimulated CL1-5 cells in vitro and also reduced the tumorigenesis and metastasis in CL1-5-bearing severe combined immunodeficient mice.
Tanshen has long been widely used as a traditional Chinese medicine. Tanshinone IIA (Tan IIA) is the most abundant lipophilic constituent of Tanshen which has antitumor activity but the mechanism is poorly understood. Some preliminary reports hypothesized that it is a DNA intercalator and that the furano-o-quinone moiety could produce free radicals responsible for its cytotoxicity. Here the interaction of Tan IIA with DNA was explored in detail using fluorescence, viscosimetry, and molecular modeling.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Tanshinone IIA is an active component of a traditional Chinese medicine based on Salvia miltiorrhiza, which reduces sudden cardiac death by suppressing ischaemic arrhythmias. However, the mechanisms underlying the anti-arrhythmic effects remain unclear. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: A model of myocardial infarction (MI) in rats by ligating the left anterior descending coronary artery was used. Tanshinone IIA or quinidine was given daily, before (7 days) and after (3 months) MI; cardiac electrical activity was monitored by ECG recording.
AIM: to examine the effects of tanshinone IIA, the main effective component of Salvia miltiorrhiza (known as 'Danshen' in traditional Chinese medicine) on angiotensin II (Ang II)-mediated cardiomyocyte apoptosis. METHODS: rat neonatal cardiomyocytes were primarily cultured with Ang II or Ang II plus tanshinone IIA. Myocyte apoptosis was evaluated by caspase-3 activity and DNA strand break level with TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) staining.